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Flashcards in Toxic Princples Deck (57):
1

Cyanogenic Glycosides

MOA:

Acute: inhibition of cytochrome oxidase and inhibtion of cellular respiration

Chronic: neuronal degeneration

CS:

Dyspnea, salivation, dilated pupils, ataxia, musc tremors, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias

2

Piperdine Alkaloids

MOA:

Nicotinic effects (ganglionic & NM stimulation followed by blockade)

CS: 

Ataxia, incoordination, birth defects (skeletal malformation, cleft palate)

3

Nitropropanol Glycoside

MOA: 

Inhibits enzymes of Krebs cycles & oxidative phosphorylation

CS: 

Cattle & sheep: resp and neurologic (cracker heels/roaring)

Horses & rodents: neurologic 

4

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

MOA:

Hepatotoxic 

CS:

Liver damage; hepatic photosensitization

5

Lily

MOA:

Unknown toxin causing nephrotoxocity in cats; causes GI irritation in cats & dogs

CS:

Salivation, V, depression, anorexia, polyuria followed by anuria & death

*ARF in cats only*

6

Insoluble Calcium Oxalates

MOA: 

Needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals penetrate oral mucosa, tongue, and through causing

 

CS: 

Irritation of lips, mouth, throat; Vomiting

**All parts of the plant is toxic; animal has to chew it**

7

Cycasin

MOA:

Glycoside: GI irritation, liver damage, teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic

BMAA: neurotoxic amino acid

Unknown: cause axonal degeneration in CNS

CS:

Dogs: V (w/or w/out blood), anorexia, D+, depression, sometimes seizures

Sheep: GI and wt loss

Cattle: neuronal signs (ataxia, weakness, wt loss)

8

Lectins

(Phytotoxins, toxalbumins)

MOA:

Inhibit cellular protein synthesis causing cell death

CS: 

Severe GI signs, bloody D+, cyanosis, convulsions, liver & kidney damage

9

Alsike Clover and Red Clover

MOA:

Hepatotoxicity & secondary photosensitization (horses), hepatic encephalopathy

CS:

Lacrimation, photophobia, erythema, pruritus, edema, necrosis, sloughing

10

Tannic Acid

MOA:

Tissue damage: GI and kidney

 

CS:

Cattle: constipation, brown urine, anorexia, depression, rumen atony (GI/kidney)

Monogastrics: colic, depression, constipation, hemorrhagic D+, hemoglobinuria, hematuria, icterus (GI)

11

Grapes and Raisins

MOA:

Unknown toxin causes acute renal failure in dogs

CS:

V, signs of acute renal failure

*Only dogs*

12

Selenium

Acute: GI irritation & resp signs

Chronic: hoof & hair abnormalities

13

Solanine and Solanidine Alkaloids

MOA:

GI, CNS, resp, cardiac

CS:

GI signs; similar signs to atropine (V, mydriasis, drowsiness)

14

Protoanemonin

MOA:

Volatile oil released by hydrolysis of glycoside

CS:

Severe irritation of GI muscoa and dermatitis

15

Copper

Liver damage, hemolysis, methemoglobinemia

16

Anthraquinones

MOA:

Purgative

CS:

Severe GI signs and D+

17

Grayanotoxins

MOA:

Bind to Na channels & depolarize excitabile cells, GI irritation

CS:

Hypersalivation, V/D, regurg, colic, depression, recumbency, tachycardia, tachypnea, seizures, fever

*death d/t aspiration pneumonia

18

Gossypol

MOA:

Cardiotoxic & secondary liver damage, detroys seminiferous tubules, binds to proteins, amino acids, & iron

CS:

Chronic; male infertility, cardiac toxicity

**Monogastric animals more sensitive**

19

Propyl disulfide

MOA:

Damage of RBC membranes & hemolysis, Heinz body formation

CS:

Anorexia, ataxia, tachycardia, dyspnea, icterus, anion odor, abortion

20

Coumarin Glycosides

MOA:

Form dicoumarol in spoiled plants; antagonize vit K by inhibiting vit K epoxide reductase (inhibits CF 2,7,9,10)

CS:

Hemorrhage

Tx: vit K1 or whole blood

21

Indolizidine Alkaloids (Swainsonine)

MOA:

Inhibit lysosomal enzymes essneital for formation of glycoproteins; alteration of cell function in brain & many organs

CS:

Neuronal signs (locoism), depression, incoordination, ataxia, circling, infertility, congenital defects, heart failure, wt loss, poor performance, decr immune fxn

22

Diterpene Esters

MOA:

Direct irritation of skin & mucous membranes, activate protein kinase C resulting in cell damage & enzyme dysfunction

CS:

Irritation & blistering of skin and GI Mucosa, salivation, V/D +/- blood

*More severe in large animals*

23

Cardiac Glycosides

MOA:

Inhibit Na/K ATPase; also cause GI irritation

 

CS:

Severe GI signs, dilated pupils, convulsions, resp signs, bradycardia, cardiac arrest

24

Ergot Alkaloids

MOA:

Vasoconstriction, gangrene, abortion

CS:

Chronic presentation

25

Macadamia Nuts

MOA:

Toxin and MOA are unknown

CS:

Weakness (esp in HLs), depression, ataxia, tremors, hyperthermia, lameness, recumbency, V/D, colic, pale mm

26

Xanthine Alkaloids 

(Caffeine, Theophylline, Theobromine)

MOA:

Blocks adenosine receptors; inhibits phosphodiesterase

CS:

Salivation, V/D, colic, CNS stimulation/seizures, musc tremors, tachycardia, hypotension, urination

27

Triterpene Acids

MOA:

Liver damage & hepatic photosensitization

CS:

Depression, anorexia, constipation/D+, icterus, photophobia, erythema, swelling, necrosis, sloughing

 

**Horses are resistant**

28

Isocupressic Acid

MOA:

Vasoconstriction and decr uterine blood flow (release of fetal cortisol)

CS:

Abortion in cattle

29

Resins or Resinoids

MOA;

Irritation of nervous or musc tissue

30

Senna

MOA:

Unknown myotoxin causes skeletal musc myopathy & cardiomyopathy

CS:

D+, musc weakness, recumbency, good appetite, myoglobinuria, coffee colored urine, tachycardia, death

*Seeds are most toxic*

31

Glucosinolate 

(Thiocyanate glycosides)

MOA:

Antithyroid

CS:

Signs of hypoT4

32

Colchicine 

MOA:

Antimitotic (binds to tubulin and nihibits spindle formation during cell division)

CS:

All oragn system toxicity

*rapidly dividing cells are most sensitive*

33

Carboxyatractyloside

(Sulfated glycoside)

MOA:

Hepatotoxicity

CS:

Liver is main target; excessive salivation, renal damage, hypoglycemia

34

Black Walnut

MOA: 

Ingestion of fresh shavings made from heartwood

CS:

Laminitis

35

Pigweed

MOA:

Nitrate: methemoglobinemia/abortion; soluble oxalates: hypocalcemia & kidney damage; unknonw: renal tubular nephrosis in ruminants, pigs, and horses

CS:

Hypocalcemia, depression, weakness, incoordination, signs of renal failure

36

Steroidal Saponins

MOA:

Hepatogenic photosensitivity, GI irritation

CS:

Photosensitization & liver damage; hypersalivation, V/D +/- blood, colic, nausea

Dogs and cats: depression

Cats: dilated pupils

37

Lycorine

MOA:

Emetic and pergative

CS:

Anorexia, salivation, V/D, hypotension

Lg amts: musc tremors & seizures

**bulb is the most toxic**

38

Thiaminase

MOA:

Destorys thiamine in diet and produced vit B1 deficiency

CS:

Neurotoxicity: wasting, incoordination, posterior paralysis, musc rigidity, convulsive seizures

39

Truterpenoid Saponins

MOA:

Direct irritation of GIT

CS:

Salivation, anorexia, V/D, colic, hypothermia

40

Meliatoxins

MOA:

Enterotoxic, Neurotoxic

CS:

GI signs +/- blood, CNS and peripheral signs (similar to nicotine), death from resp failure

41

Calcinogenic glycosides

(Vit D analogs)

MOA:

Hypercalcemia (inhibits renal excretion); calcification of elastic tissues (arteries, ligaments, tendons, etc.)

CS:

Slow onset of lameness (6m-1yr), incr bone density; calcinosis

42

Quinones

MOA:

Primary photosensitization (directly from the plant)

 

CS:

Erythema, pruritus, edema, necrosis of the skin, secondary bacterial infections

43

Yellow starthistle & Russian Knapweed

MOA:

Toxins interact w/dopamine transporter resulting in death of dopaminergic neurons esp substantia nigra & globus pallidus

CS:

Sudden onset, inability to eat or drink, drowsiness interrupted by excitation, head down, dehydration

*Equine Nigropallidal Encephalomalacia*

Chewing dz

44

Diterpene Alkaloids

MOA:

Competitive blockade of nicotinic receptors 

CS:

Sudden death (cattle), musc weakness, stiffness, staggering, bloating, recumbency, collapse

Monkshood: cardiac arrythmias

Tx: Physostigmine and neostigmine

45

Molybdenum

MOA:

Causes copper deficiency

CS:

Watery, bubbly D+, wasting, anemia, depigementation, demyelination, osteoporosis

46

Tetradymol

MOA:

Hepatogenic photosensitization 

CS:

Sudden onset of anorexia, depression, icoordination, dyspnea, icterus, head pressing, skin swelling erytehma, necrosis, sloughing

**Sheep are most susceptible**

47

Soluble oxalates

MOA:

Hypocalcemia and precipitation of insoluble calcium oxalates in soft tissues

Kidney damage

 

CS:

Hypocalcemia, tetany

Lg doses can cause renal failure

48

Avocado

Goats, horses, rabbits, caged birds: cardiotoxicity

Cattle, horses, goats, rabbits: non-infectious mastitis & agalactica

49

Red Maple

MOA:

Unknown toxin in dired leaves causes hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinemia & Heinz body anemia in horses

CS:

Anorexia, depression, anemia, icterus, brown discoloration of mm, hemoglobinuria, dyspnea, cyanosis, death

*Horses*

50

Nitrate

Acute: GI irritation, methemoglobinemia, resp insuffieicny, abortion

 

Chronic: decr progesterone during pregnancy & abortion

51

Tropane Alkaloids 

(Atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine)

MOA:

Similar to atropine

All parts of the plant are toxic

CS:

Mydriasis, dry mouth, tachycardia, hypertension, urine retention, hallucination, seizures

Tx: physostigmine

52

Dimethyl Sulfide

MOA:

Oxidation of RBCs forming Heinz bodies

CS:

Depression, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, icterus, cyanosis

53

Phytoestrogens

MOA:

Bind to estogen receptors

CS: 

Infertility in males/females; decr libido & feminization in males

54

Taxine Alkaloids

MOA:

Inhibits Na/K ATPase (Causes excess IC calcium)

CS:

Cardiotoxic and GI (similar to glycosides)

 

**CI to give K+**

55

Ptaquiloside

MOA:

Death of precurosr cells in BM; neoplasia in uinary tract; tumors in upper GIT; retinal damage

CS:

Aplastic anemia (acute hemorrhage & anorexia), enzootic bovine hematuria (blood in urine, anemia, tachycardia, death), bright blindness in sheed

56

Muscarine

MOA:

Stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

CS:

CNS stimulation

57

Pyridine Alkaloids

MOA:

Low doses: depolarization of nicotinic receptors at autonomic ganglia, NMJ, and CNS

High doses: causes blockade

CS:

Rapid onset; excitation, salivation, lacrimation, V/D, tachypnea, musc twitching/weakness, dyspnea

Death d/t resp failure