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Flashcards in Toxicology 3 Deck (79)
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1

T-f-- most areas of USA have arsenic levels below .01mg/L. What is considered high?

T
>1mg is high

2

What does to much arsenic come from?

coal combustion and non-ferrous smelting

3

What form of Arsenic is the major toxic form?>

AsIII
[sodium arsenate is example NaAsO2]

4

What is the main use of arsenic?

pesticides

[other includes medicine, computer chips, glassware and paints]

5

What is the main ingredient in ant poison?

arsenic trioxide- tasteless…use for homicides

6

What keeps the high levels of arsenic in fish at check?

bound to betaine and is harmless and urinated out

7

T-F- arsenic is the 3rd most common cause of heavy metal induced death in the USA?

False- 2nd

8

What is the major routes of arsenic uptake?

GI and lung

9

What is arsenic half life=

3 days

10

What are the normal arsenic blood levels?

.03-.05 micrograms per dL

Total body burden is 1-10 mg mostly in skin hair and nails

11

Where is short term accumulation of arsenic?

liver, kidney, heart, and lung

12

Where is the long term storage of arsenic?

hair, nails and skin (affinity to keratin, SULFHYDRYL GROUPS!)

There is deposition in bones and teeth

13

What is the major route of arsenic excretion?

(sweat, hair, nails, teeth) > feces >urine

14

What is the mech of arsenic toxicity?

accumulates in mitoch. and inhibit mitoch enzymes w/ -SH groups

15

What are target organs of arsenic toxicity?

GI, Kidney, skin,
CV, nervous

16

What is dimercaprol and penicillamine used for?

chelation therapy in arsenic toxicity

17

T-F-- arsenic toxicity leads to vasoconstriction?

False- dilation

18

What are mouth symptoms of arsenic?

burning lips, garlic breath, constriction of throat.

19

Review what chronic arsenic exposure does?

muscle weakness
perspiration, skin pigmentation, dermatitis
numbness, burning feet soles,
vasodilation, heart arrhythmias
ischemic gangrene
Cancer
reproductive tox

20

T-F 13 million live with > 10 micrograms As/L

True

21

Is cadmium bioaccumated?

yes, we take up more than we can excrete

22

Where is cadmium released from?

coal burning, Zn missing smelting
[used in electroplating, galvanizing, NV-Cd batteries
4. color pigment

23

What is the normal daily uptake of cadmium?

10-40 microgram / day

24

where is most of the body burden for cadmium?

kidneys>liver

25

what haooens in acute oral cadmium exposure?

nausea, vomiting, death

26

What happens in acute respiratory exposure to cadmium?

pneumonitis, pulmonary eema, death

27

What is the treatment for cadmium toxicity?

none- support lung function

28

What happens in chronic chronic lung cadmium exposure? cardiovascular? bone?

1. COPD, BRONCHITIS, EMPHYSEMA
2. HYPERTENSION
3. PAIN, OSTEOMALACIA (Itai-itai disease japan- Ca metabolism disrupted due to damage)

29

What type of cancer doe cadmium exposure cause?

prostate (and lung, testes, kidney, stomach)

30

What happens to the kidneys with chronic cadmium exposure?

renal tubular disease, proteinuria, Fanconi's syndrome.