Flashcards in Toxicology 3 Deck (79)
T-f-- most areas of USA have arsenic levels below .01mg/L. What is considered high?
>1mg is high
What does to much arsenic come from?
coal combustion and non-ferrous smelting
What form of Arsenic is the major toxic form?>
[sodium arsenate is example NaAsO2]
What is the main use of arsenic?
[other includes medicine, computer chips, glassware and paints]
What is the main ingredient in ant poison?
arsenic trioxide- tasteless…use for homicides
What keeps the high levels of arsenic in fish at check?
bound to betaine and is harmless and urinated out
T-F- arsenic is the 3rd most common cause of heavy metal induced death in the USA?
What is the major routes of arsenic uptake?
GI and lung
What is arsenic half life=
What are the normal arsenic blood levels?
.03-.05 micrograms per dL
Total body burden is 1-10 mg mostly in skin hair and nails
Where is short term accumulation of arsenic?
liver, kidney, heart, and lung
Where is the long term storage of arsenic?
hair, nails and skin (affinity to keratin, SULFHYDRYL GROUPS!)
There is deposition in bones and teeth
What is the major route of arsenic excretion?
(sweat, hair, nails, teeth) > feces >urine
What is the mech of arsenic toxicity?
accumulates in mitoch. and inhibit mitoch enzymes w/ -SH groups
What are target organs of arsenic toxicity?
GI, Kidney, skin,
What is dimercaprol and penicillamine used for?
chelation therapy in arsenic toxicity
T-F-- arsenic toxicity leads to vasoconstriction?
What are mouth symptoms of arsenic?
burning lips, garlic breath, constriction of throat.
Review what chronic arsenic exposure does?
perspiration, skin pigmentation, dermatitis
numbness, burning feet soles,
vasodilation, heart arrhythmias
T-F 13 million live with > 10 micrograms As/L
Is cadmium bioaccumated?
yes, we take up more than we can excrete
Where is cadmium released from?
coal burning, Zn missing smelting
[used in electroplating, galvanizing, NV-Cd batteries
4. color pigment
What is the normal daily uptake of cadmium?
10-40 microgram / day
where is most of the body burden for cadmium?
what haooens in acute oral cadmium exposure?
nausea, vomiting, death
What happens in acute respiratory exposure to cadmium?
pneumonitis, pulmonary eema, death
What is the treatment for cadmium toxicity?
none- support lung function
What happens in chronic chronic lung cadmium exposure? cardiovascular? bone?
1. COPD, BRONCHITIS, EMPHYSEMA
3. PAIN, OSTEOMALACIA (Itai-itai disease japan- Ca metabolism disrupted due to damage)
What type of cancer doe cadmium exposure cause?
prostate (and lung, testes, kidney, stomach)