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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (29):
1

An odorless, colorless gas that competes avidly with oxygen for hemoglobin. Its affinity for hemoglobin is more than _____-fold greater than that of oxygen.
For an eight-hour workday, the threshold limit value is _____ parts per million.
Side effects include headache and cherry red skin. Collapse and syncope occur when approximately _____% of hemoglobin has been converted to ____________________.
Treatment is removal of the source and administration of _____% oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen accelerates its clearance.

Carbon monoxide
200
25
40
carboxyhemoglobin
100

2

A colorless irritating gas from combustion of fossil fuels. It forms sulfurous acid on contact with mucous membranes. Effects include bronchospasm and pulmonary edema.

Sulfur dioxide

3

Brownish irritant gas formed in fires and silage on farms. It causes deep lung irritation and pulmonary edema as well as irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.

Nitrogen oxide

4

A bluish irritant gas produced in air and water purification devices and in electrical fields. It causes pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

Ozone

5

Long-term exposure to __________, an aromatic hydrocarbon, is associated with hematotoxicity (thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia) and hematologist cancers (leukemia).

benzene

6

______________ hydrocarbons cause tremors and seizures in acute toxicity, and chronic exposure increases risk of infertility and breast, brain, and testicular cancer.

Chlorinated

7

The most common cause of death from cholinesterase inhibitors is ___________________. Chronic exposure causes delayed _________________ with axonal degeneration.
Treatment: _________________

respiratory failure
neurotoxicity
atropine plus pralidoxime

8

A botanical insecticide which causes gastrointestinal distress when ingested, conjunctivitis and dermatitis after direct contact

Rotenone

9

A botanical pesticide which causes contact dermatitis. Large quantities may cause CNS excitation (including seizures) and peripheral neurotoxicity.

Pyrethrum

10

An herbicide, also known as Agent Orange, which causes muscle hypotonia and coma. Long-term exposure increases risk of ______________ lymphoma.

Chlorophenoxyacids
non-Hodgkin

11

An herbicide which causes significant eye and skin irritation

Glyphosphate

12

A bipyridyl herbicide used extensively to kill weeds on farms and for highway maintenance

Paraquat

13

Used extensively in manufacturing electrical equipment. It's most common effect is dermatotoxicity (acne, erythema, folliculitis, hyperkeratosis)

Polychlorinated biphenyls

14

Dioxins are unwanted by-products of the chemical industry. The most common signs of toxicity are dermatitis and ____________ (cystic acneiform
Edison's that typically form on the face and upper body).
There are also carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in humans.

chloracne

15

An environmental pollutants formerly used widely in manufacturing and building. It causes a fibrotic lung disorder characterized by shortness of breath. It is also associated with several cancers including lung cancer, mesothelioma, and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.

Asbestos

16

Chronic inorganic lead poisoning or _______________ may cause wrist-drop.
Treatment:
- removal from the source of exposure
- chelation therapy
--- oral _____________ in outpatients
--- ________________ in severe cases
- dietary modification (high dietary _____________)

plumbism
succimer
EDTA +/- dimercaprol
calcium

17

Organic lead poisoning, usually due to _____________ or _____________ lead contained in antiknock gasoline, may present as hallucinations, headache, irritability, convulsions or coma.

tetraethyl, tetramethyl

18

Arsenic is released during burning of coal. Its trivalent form, ______________, is responsible for its toxicity.

arsenite

19

Acute ___________ poisoning may present as sweet garlicky odor in breath and stools and rice-water stools.
Treatment includes chelation therapy with ________________.

arsenic
dimercaprol

20

Chronic ______________ poisoning may present as hair loss, bone marrow depression, ____________ (transverse bands in nails), and skin changes (raindrop hyperpigmentation, milk and roses complexion, hyperkeratoses).
Treatment: ________________

arsenic
Mee's lines
dimercaprol

21

Occupational hazard formed during the refinement and processing of certain metals used in semiconductors. Treatment includes exchange transfusion and vigorous hydration. Chelators are of no clinical value.

Arsine gas

22

Treatment for acute inorganic mercury poisoning includes prompt chelation with oral ______________ or IM ______________.

succimer
dimercaprol

23

Chronic inorganic mercury poisoning may present as loosening of gums and teeth, gastrointestinal disturbances, and neurologic and behavioral changes (_______________).
Chelation therapy with _____________ and _______________.

erethism
succimer, unithiol
NOTE: Dimercaprol should not be used because it might just redistribute mercury to the CNS.

24

True or False.
Organic mercury poisoning can be due to consumption of fish r grans containing methylmercury. It may present as cerebral palsy, deafness, blindness, and mental retardation (signs of Minamata disease). Benefits form chelation therapy are uncertain.

True

25

True or False
Iron poisoning may present as gray cyanosis, severe gastrointestinal necrosis, hemosiderosis, or hemochromatosis.
Deferoxamine is the chelating agent of choice.

True

26

Chelator used in acute arsenic poisoning, acute mercury poisoning, and severe chronic lead poisoning (co-administered with __________ ).
Side effects include transient hypertension, injection site reactions, thrombocytopenia, and increased prothrombin time.

Dimercaprol
EDTA

27

Used in the oral treatment of lead poisoning. It is administered at blood lead level concentrations greater than 45 mcg/dL.

Succimer

28

Chelator used for acute severe arsenic poisoning, acute severe mercury poisoning, and lead poisoning

Unithiol

29

Chelator used for copper poisoning and Wilson' disease

Penicillamine

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