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Flashcards in Toxicology (core) Deck (20)
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1

Which drugs are used to acutely control seizures?

Benzodiazopienes

1

When are whole bowel irrigations used?

Slow absorbed substances to reduce their chance of being absorbed into the blood

1

What can be done once the substance is absorbed into blood?

Haemodialysis

2

What is the antedote for paracetamol

N-acetylcysteine

3

What doesn't bind to charcoal?

Potassium

Iron

Lead

Lithium

Alcohol

Caustic/Corrosives

3

Why do people die from tricyclic antidepressants?

Binds to inactive Na channels in the heart to block Na entry - causes wider QRS on ECG

5

What is the triad of narcotic toxicity?

Small pupil

Hypoventilation

Hypotension

5

What do anti-cholinergic toxins present?

Fragmentary speech

Dry - decreased SLUD, particularly dry axilla

Tachycardia

Mad as a hatter

Hot as a hare

Blind as a bat

Red as a beet

Dry as a bone

7

How does sympathomimetic toxicity present?

CNS excitation

Convulsion

 

9

What is activated charcoal used for?

Binds to poisons in stomach to deactivate it

10

How is red back spider bite treated?

Ice

Antivenom

 

11

Which substances are amenable to haemodialysis?

L - Lithium

E - Ethylene glycol

T - Theophyline

M- Methanol

S - Salicylates

A - Atenolol

V - Valproic acid

P - Potassium

12

What do you think of with an increased anion gap?

M - methanol

U - Uremia

D - Diabetic ketoacidosis

P - Paraldehyde

I - Iron, isoniazid

L - Lactic acidosis

E - Ethylene glycol, methanol

S - Salicylate poisoning

13

What is the pathophysiology of paracetamol toxicity?

The ability of glutathione to metabolise paracetamol is overwhelm and NAPQI is produced - damage

14

What is the toxic dose of paracetamol?

150/200mg/kg

15

What is the most common drug overdosed on?

Paracetamol

16

What are the features of serotonin syndrome?

Agitation

Hyperreflexia

Diaphoresis

Tachycardia

Clonus

Automonic instability

Increase bowel sounds, diarrhoea

18

How does withdrawal syndrome present?

Diarrhoea

Tachycardia

Piloerection

Hallucination

19

How is paracetamol overdose managed?

Measure paracetamol levels and treat if it crosses a threshold with N-acetylcysteine therapy

If they present 8-24 hours after ingestion - treat straight away then measure levels

20

How does acetylcysteine work in paracetamol overdose?

Replaces glutathione