Trait Approaches Ch.7&8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Trait Approaches Ch.7&8 Deck (28):
1

Allport & Odbert lexical approach and results

•18000 person descriptive English words
•initial division:
Traits
States
Activities
Other (evaluations,skills, etc)

2

Cattell's 16 PF

•5000 traits into 200 clusters then 35 variables
•16 personality factors
•cattell's 16PF could not be replicated independently

3

Factor analysis

A statistical method to identify clusters or groups of correlated traits

Data reduction

4

Big 5 Model E

Extraversion, enthusiasm, energy
•talkative,outgoing, not reserved, assertive, forceful, energetic

Examples: E+ Homer Simpson E- Smithers

5

Big 5 A

Agreeableness, altruism, Affection
•considerate,cooperative,not rude, pro social , trusting, not cold or aloof

A+ Marge Simpson A- Monty burns

6

Big 5 C

Conscientiousness, constraint, control

• careful, methodical, thinks before speaking, task-focused, efficient, not easily distracted

C+Lisa Simpson C- Barney Gumble

7

Big 5 N

•Neuroticism, negative affectivity, Nervousness

•tense, easily upset, not relaxed, worries much versus emotionally stable, handles stress well

N+ moe N- rev. Love joy

8

Big 5 O

• Openness, Originality, Open-mindedness

•enjoys thinking, reflecting on experience, has rich and vivid emotional inner life, not bland

O+ Lisa Simpson O- Abe Simpson

9

Why are big 5 called big

•it is so broad at the highest level of abstraction or generality in a hierarchical model

•includes 5000 traits that is about 1000 individual traits for each factor

10

Levels of abstraction

•Broadest: factor e.g.: extraversion
•Lower: facet e.g.: sociability
•Even lower: habits e.g.: entertaining strangers
•Lowest: specific behaviors eg: telling a joke

11

Facets for Extraversion

Warmth
Positive emotion
Activity level
Excitement seeking

Ex: Bill Clinton

12

Facets for Agreeableness

Trust
Altruism
Modesty
Compliance

Ex:radar

13

Facets for conscientiousness

Order
Deliberation
Competence
Self-discipline

Ex:Spock

14

Facets for neuroticism

Anxiety
Depression
Vulnerability
Angry hostility

Ex:woody Allen

15

Facets for openness

Ideas
Actions
Values
Aesthetics

Ex: Lewis Carroll

16

Allports different kind of traits

Cardinal traits
Unique traits
Idiographic traits

17

Cardinal traits

Picking two traits from each facet of the big 5 which is your most fundamental trait

18

Unique traits

Not included in the big 5

19

Idiographic

Believed that everybody is so different and unique that one single system like the big 5 cannot describe all folks

20

Three factor theory (PEN) by Eysenck

Psychoticism
Extraversion
Neuroticism

P= low a and low c of big 5

21

Traits that go up during maturity

Agreeableness and conscientiousness
Self-acceptance
Confidence

22

Traits that decrease in adulthood

Neuroticism

23

What drops @ age 10

Conscientiousness

24

What trait drops in teens

Agreeableness

25

What are the substantial age differences during adolescence

Bottom out in c and a in mid-adolescence

26

What personality change age differences continue after adolescence

Big increases in A and C
Smaller decreases in N,E, and O during adulthood

27

MBTI Dimensions

Energy source: Extravert vs introvert
Data gathering: sensor bs intuitive
Decision making: thinker vs feeler
Outer world orientation: judger vs perceiver

28

What are MBTI criticisms

Either or types do not exist
Most people score in the middle
Implies low retest reliability for people in the middle
Nonnegative affect