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Flashcards in Trans - Human Genome Deck (89)
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2

Percentage of genes in genome

2-3%

3

Correlation between genome size and organism complexity

None

4

Definition of telomere

Ends of chromosome

5

Original definition of genome

Collection of genes contained within a haploid chromosome set

6

Modern definition of genome

Locatable region of genomic sequence corresponding to a unit of inheritance associated with regulatory regions, transcribed regions, and/or other functional sequence regions

7

Definition of centromere

Central region of chromosome

8

Arms of chromosome?

Chromatid

9

Shorter arm of chromosome

P arm

10

Longer arm of chromosome

Q arm

11

Number of rings in purine

Two

12

Number of rings in pyrimidine

One

13

Which bases are purines?

Adenine, Guanine

14

Which bases are pyrimidines?

Cytosine, Thymine

15

Correlation between GC content and melting point

Higher GC content, higher melting point

16

Which is more preferred for expression? AT or CG?

AT

17

Correlation between GC content and level of expression

Higher GC content, more silenced genes

18

Definition of intron and exon

[1] Intron --> region of DNA not expressed;
[2] Exon --> expressed region of DNA

19

Parts of the UTR/Leading sequence

[1] Enhancer
[2[ Promoter
[3] Operator
[4] Consensus sequence

20

Consensus sequence in a) prokaryotes, b) eukaryotes

[A] Pribnow box (TATAAT);
[B] Hogness box (TATA)

21

Parts of coding sequence

[1] Start codon (AUG);
[2] Introns and exons;
[3]. Stop codon (UAA, UAG, UGA)

22

Number of bonds in CG linkage

3

23

Name and define the regions associated with the alternating introns and exons

[1] Pre Region --> signal region, determines where the protein will go;
[2]. Pro Region --> determines posttranslational modification
[3] Mature Region --> encodes the protein

24

Parts of the UTR/trailing sequence

[1] 2nd termination signal
[2] Cleavage signal (AAUAA) containing poly-A tail

25

Central dogma of molecular biology

[1] Replication --> DNA duplication;
[2] Transcription --> RNA synthesis
[3] Translation --> protein synthesis

26

Definition of open reading frame

Region of DNA corresponding to coding sequence

27

Composition of human genome

[1] euchromatic portion;
[2] constituitive heterochromatin

28

Where can constituitive heterochromatin be found?

[1] Centromeres;
[2] Long arm of Y chromosome
[3] Short arm of acentric chromosomes (13, 14, 15, 21, 22)
[4] Secondary constriction of long arm of 1, 19, 16

29

Percentage composition of bases in genome

GC --> 41%; AT --> 59%

30

What are Giemsa bands?

[1] Dark bands --> low GC, 37%
[2] Light bands --> high GC, 45%

both bands seen in karyotype

31

Number of base pairs in human genome

3200 M