Transfusions and Blood Groups Flashcards Preview

Immunology > Transfusions and Blood Groups > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transfusions and Blood Groups Deck (30):
1

IMHA treatment

- remove underlying cause
- immunosuppressive therapy
- anticoagulant therapy
- supportive care

2

Transfusion

Process of receiving blood products into one's own circulation

3

Types of blood products

- fresh whole blood
- packed red blood cells
- fresh frozen plasma
- platelet concentrates

4

Indications for transfusions

- anemia: hemorrhage, hemolysis, non-regenerative
- disorders of hemostasis/coagulation
- deficiencies of plasma components

5

RBC transfusions

- any cause of life-threatening anemia
- acute hemorrhage
- hemolysis
- severe non-regenerative anemia
- neonatal isoerythrolysis

6

Blood groups

Inherited antigens on RBC surface
- species specific
- vary in immunogenicity and clinical significance

7

RBC antigens

- contribute to self recognition
- elicit the production of antibodies when introduced to an animal whose RBCs lack that antigen

8

Canine blood types

Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) system
- 1.1, 1.2 - 8
- 1.1, and 1.2 are considered important in transfusion medicine (produce the greatest immune response)

9

DEA 1.1

Extremely antigenic
- DEA 1.1 positive express the antigen
- 42% of dogs

10

What is the first antibody class that is synthesized by the primary immune response

IgM
- efficient at binding complement

11

What is produced during a secondary immune response?

IgG

12

Red cell alloantibodies

IgM, IgG, or IgE antibodies that could cause hypersensitivity reactions to blood products

13

Do dogs have naturally occurring alloantibodies?

NO
Requires sensitization (transfusion) for alloantibodies to develop

14

Transfusion with similar DEA antigens and no alloantibodies

Less likely to mount an immune response

15

Transfusion with recipient positive DEA 1.1 and donor negative DEA 1.1

DEA 1.1 negative does not express 1.1 antigen, so less likely to mount an immune response

16

Transfusion with recipient negative DEA 1.1 and donor positive DEA 1.1

Will become sensitized and produce an anti-DEA 1.1 alloantibody
- does not happen immediately

17

Previously transfused patients

At risk for developing transfusion reactions
- risk complement destroying transfused blood immediately (acute hemolysis)

18

Blood typing

RBC antigens and plasma antibody interaction can be used to assess compatibility

19

Agglutination

Antibody-mediated clumping of cells that express antigen on their surface

20

Will the very first transfusion a dog receives cause a reaction?

No, since there are no antibodies free floating in the body at this point

21

Major crossmatch

Determine compatibility between donor and recipient
- donor RBCs are incubated with recipient serum and observed for agglutination or hemolysis
- if no agglutination/hemolysis then you are safe to transfuse

22

Minor crossmatch

Compatibility: donor plasma and recipient

23

Feline blood types

3 main blood types
- A
- B
- AB

24

Feline type A

Predominant blood type
- varies with breed and location
- type B: devon rex, and british shorthair

25

Do cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies?

Yes
- some A cats have antibodies against B blood
- MOST B cats have antibodies against A blood

26

What happens if you give a B recipient A type blood?

Will get an immediate hemolytic response

27

Actue hemolytic transfusion reactions

Develops when transfused RBCs interact with preformed circulating antibodies in the recipient that are naturally occurring or acquired
- can activate complement and cytokines = systemic inflammatory response

28

AHTRs

- reaction severity is directly related to number of RBCs destroyed
- dogs: reactions are predominantly IgG
- cats: reactions are predominantly IgM

29

AHTR clinical signs

- fever
- restlesness
- salivation
- incontinence
- shock

30

Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions

- temperature increase associated with a transfusion without other explanation
- leukocyte derived cytokine and/or circulating anti-leukocyte antibodies in the recipient