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Flashcards in Transition Metals Deck (26):
1

Oxidation states and colours of Sc

+3

2

Oxidation states and colours of Ti

+2, +3 and purple, +4, +5

3

Oxidation states and colours of V

+2 and purple, +3 and green, +4 and blue, +5 and yellow

4

Oxidation states and colours of Cr

+2 and blue, +3 and green, +4, +5, +6 and orange

5

Oxidation states and colours of Mn

+2 and pink, +3, +4 and brown, +5, +6 green, +7 purple

6

Oxidation states and colours of Fe

+2 pale green, +3 pale yellow, +4, +5, +6

7

Oxidation states and colours of Co

+2 and pink, +3 and green, +4, +5

8

Oxidation states and colours of Ni

+2 and green, +3, +4

9

Oxidation states and colours of Cu

+1, +2 and blue, +3

10

Oxidation states and colours of Zn

+2

11

Ligand substitution of [Cu(H2O)₆] with NH₃

[Cu(H2O)₆]²⁺ (aq) + 4NH₃ → [Cu(NH₃)₄(H2O)₂]²⁺ (aq) + 4H₂O (l)
The colour change shown is pale blue to dark blue and a blue precipitate is formed but dissolves anyway in the excess NH₃ needed for the reaction to occur.

12

Ligand substitution of [Cu(H2O)₆] with Cl

[Cu(H2O)₆]²⁺ (aq) + 4Cl⁻ (aq) → [Cu(Cl)₄]²⁻ (aq) + 6H₂O (l)
The colour change shown is pale blue to yellow. The reaction needs concentrated HCl.

13

Ligand substitution of [Cr(H2O)₆] with 6NH₃

[Cr(H2O)₆]³⁺ (aq) + 6NH₃ (aq) → [Cr(NH₃)₆]³⁺ (aq) + 6H₂O (l) The colour change shown is pale violet/purple to purple and a grey precipitate is formed but dissolves anyway in the excess NH₃ needed for the reaction to occur.

14

Precipitation reaction of Cu with NaOH

Cu²⁺ (aq) + 2OH⁻ (aq) → Cu(OH)₂ (s) - blue precipitate

15

Precipitation reaction of Fe [III] with NaOH

Fe³⁺ (aq) + 3OH⁻ (aq) → Fe(OH)₃ (s) - orange/brown precipitate

16

Precipitation reaction of Fe [II] with NaOH

Fe²⁺ (aq) + 2OH⁻ (aq) → Fe(OH)₂ (s) - green precipitate

17

Precipitation reaction of Mn with NaOH

Mn²⁺ (aq) + 2OH⁻ (aq) → Mn(OH)₂ (s) - light brown precipitate

18

Precipitation reaction of Cr with NaOH

Cr³⁺ (aq) + 3OH⁻ (aq) → Cr(OH)₃ (s) - green precipitate

19

Precipitation reaction of Cu with NH₃

Cu(OH)₂ (s) + 4NH₃ (aq) → [Cu(OH)₂(NH₃)₄]²⁺ (aq) - deep blue

20

Precipitation reaction of Cr with NH₃

Cr(OH)₃ (s) + 6NH₃ (aq) → [Cr(NH₃)₆]³⁺ (aq) - purple

21

Redox Reaction of Fe (II)

MnO₄⁻ (aq) + 8H⁺ (aq) + 5Fe²⁺ (aq) → Mn²⁺ (aq) + 5Fe³⁺ (aq) + 4H₂O (l)
There is a colour change for manganese from purple to colourless

22

Redox Reaction of Fe (III)

Fe³⁺ (aq) + 2I⁻ (aq) → Fe²⁺ (aq) + I₂ (aq)
There is a colour change for iron from orange/brown to pale green

23

Redox Reaction of Cr (III)

Cr³⁺ (aq) → Cr₂O₇²⁻ (aq)
There is a colour change for Chromium from green to orange with reaction conditions of H₂O₂/OH⁻

24

Redox Reaction of Cr₂O₇

Cr₂O₇²⁻ (aq) + 14H⁺ (aq) + 3Zn(s) → 2Cr³⁺ (aq) + 7H₂O (l) + 3Zn²⁺ (aq)
There is a colour change for Chromium from orange to green. Using excess zinc will make Chromium pale blue afterwards.

25

Redox Reaction of Cu (II)

2Cu²⁺ (aq) + 4I⁻ (aq) → 2CuI (s) + I₂ (aq)
There is a colour change for Copper from light blue and brown. A white precipitate is formed.

26

Redox Reaction of Cu (I)

Cu₂O (s) + H₂SO₄ (aq) → Cu (s) + CuSO₄ (aq) + H₂O (l)
There is brown precipitate formed and a blue solution is formed. Hot dilute H₂SO₄ is needed.