Transmission of communicable diseases Flashcards Preview

Chapter 12 Communicable Disease > Transmission of communicable diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transmission of communicable diseases Deck (17):
1

What is direct transmission?

-Pathogen transferred directly from one individual to another.
-Can be by, direct contact, inoculation, and ingestion.

2

How are pathogens transferred by direct contact?

-Kissing or any contact with bodily fluids, e.g. bacterial meningitis.
-Direct skin-to-skin, e.g. athlete's foot.
-Microorganisms from faeces transmitted on hands, e.g. diarrhoeal disease.

3

How are pathogens transferred by inoculation?

-Break in skin, e.g. HIV.
-Animal bite, e.g. rabies.
-Puncture wound or shared needles, e.g. septicaemia.

4

How are pathogens transferred by ingestion?

-Contaminated food or drink, e.g. diarrhoeal diseases.

5

What is indirect transmission?

-Pathogens travels from one individual to another indirectly.
-Can be by, fomites, droplet infection and vectors.

6

How are pathogens transferred by fomites?

-Inanimate objects like socks or bedding, e.g. athlete's foot.

7

How are pathogens transferred by droplet infection?

-Droplets of saliva and mucus as you talk or sneeze, e.g. TB.

8

How are pathogens transferred by vectors?

-Transmit communicable disease from one host to another, e.g. mosquitoes transmit malaria.

9

What is transmission between animals and humans and how can it be reduced?

-Communicable diseases passed on from animals onto humans.
-Avoid close contact and wash hands after contact.

10

What factors affect transmission of disease in animals?

-Overcrowded living and working conditions.
-Poor nutrition.
-Compromised immune system.
-Poor disposal of waste.
-Lack of healthcare.

11

How can the spread of communicable disease be reduced in humans?

-Hand washing.
-Improved living and working conditions.
-Disposal of bodily and house waste effectively.

12

How are pathogens transferred by direct transmission in plants?

-Healthy part of a plant being in contact with diseased plant, e.g. black sigatoka.

13

How are pathogens transferred by indirect transmission in plants?

-Soil contamination.
-Vectors.

14

How are pathogens transferred by soil contamination?

-Infected plants leave spores in the soil and can infect next crop, e.g. black sigatoka.

15

How are pathogens transferred by vectors?

-Wind; fungal spores may be carried in wind, e.g. black sigatoka.
-Water; spores present in rain and water, e.g. potato blight.
-Animals; insects and birds carry pathogens as they feed.
-Humans; pathogens transmitted by hands and clothing, e.g. TMV.

16

What factors affect the transmission of disease in plants?

-Planting crops that are susceptible to disease.
-Over-crowding increases contact.
-Damp, warm conditions increase survival of pathogens and spores.
-Poor mineral nutrition.

17

How can the spread of communicable disease be reduced in plants?

-Leave plenty of room in between plants.
-Control insect vectors with insecticides.
-Follow strict hygiene routines like washing hands and boots.
-Clear fields as thoroughly as possible.