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Flashcards in Transpiration Deck (15)
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The tubes that transport water and mineral ions are called ...



How is the xylem adapted for its function?

Dead cells
Form continuous hollow tube from root to shoot
Strengthened and waterproofed with lignin


Name the process used to absorb water from the soil.



Name the process used to absorb mineral ions from the soil

Active transport


Name the structures used to increase the surface area of the root in contact with the soil.

Root hair cells


How are the root hair cells adapted for their function?

Large surface area
Lots of mitochondria to release energy for active transport


What is transpiration?

Transpiration is the evaporation of water vapour and its diffusion through the stomata


How does transpiration move water up a plant?

Water evaporates from the mesophyll cells and diffuses out of the stomata
Water is pulled out of the xylem vessel to replace the lost water.
Water molecules in the xylem stick to each other and are pulled up the xylem.
Water is absorbed by the roots and travels to the xylem vessel.


Explain how an increase in temperature affects the rate of transpiration

Increasing temperature increases the rate of transpiration.
More water converted into water vapour (evaporation)
Faster diffusion through stomata as molecules moving faster.


Explain how humidity affects the rate of transpiration

Increasing humidity decreases the rate of transpiration.
High concentration of water vapour in the atmosphere around the leaf reduces the concentration gradient and causes less water to leave the leaf.


Explain how wind speed affects the rate of transpiration

Increasing wind speed/ air movement increases the rate of transpiration
Increase air movement reduces the water vapour concentration outside the leaf. The concentration gradient is reduced and less water diffuses out of the leaf.


Explain how light intensity affects the rate of transpiration

Increasing light intensity increases the rate of transpiration
More stomata open to allow carbon dioxide into the leaf for photosynthesis.
More water vapour can escape from the leaf.


Name the organs of a plant involved in the transport of substances around the plant

Root, stem and leaves


Name the cells that surround the stomata and what is their function?

Guard cells
Open the stomata during the day to allow gas exchange for photosynthesis.
Close the stomata at night to reduce water loss. and close the stomata


In which direction does water travel in a plant?

From root to shoot