Transport, Antemortem Inspection and Slaughter Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Transport, Antemortem Inspection and Slaughter Deck (45)
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1

FMIA

Federal Meat Inspection Act

2

FMIA requires...

inspection of all meat sold from livestock
(cattle, sheep, swine, goats, equids)
Foods must be: sanitary, free of pathogens, not adulterated, properly labeled

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federal inspection=

interstate or export

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state inspection=

intrastate ONLY

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foreign imports into the US

must have standard equivalent to US law or demonstrating equivalent risk
USDA can visit importing country and review inspection procedures

6

FMIA exceptions:

Slaughter of your own animals for consumption by self, family, guests – NOT for $$!
Retail dealers / stores that do not slaughter, with >75% of sales to retail customers
Individual who purchases meat or meat products outside the United States for his/her own consumption – not to exceed fifty pounds

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meat from other species

do not fall under FMIA rules
poultry covered by PPIA

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PPIA

poultry products inspection agency

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stress associated with transport

Expensive! Loss of meat quality, injuries to
animals, animals may be condemned
Weight loss ..shrink
Pigs are very vulnerable to suffocation
Bruising –especially sheep and pigs
Immune stress / microbial shedding

10

2 effects of stress on meat

Dark Firm Dry (DFD)
– PRE‐MORTEM depletion of muscle glycogen
2. Pale Soft Exudative (PSE)
– POSTMORTEM depletion of muscle glycogen

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normal post slaughter changes

Well fed un‐stressed animals should have a lot of glycogen in muscle before slaughter
After slaughter metabolism continues in muscle cells
Glycogen is converted to lactic acid which lowers the pH of muscle and tenderizes the meat

12

DFD

Dark Firm Dry
Chronic Stress prior to slaughter + adrenaline= pre‐mortem glycogen depletion in muscles
reduction in lactic acid causes high pH

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reducing DFD

Ensure adequate muscle glycogen
Reduce glycogen consumption (reduce stress)
Manage implants (cattle)

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PSE

Pale Soft Exudative
High stress pre‐slaughter (acute)
Rapid postmortem intracellular glycolysis causes accumulation of lactic acid
condemned at inspection

15

PSS

porcine stress syndrome

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True/False: there is heritable susceptibility to PSE

True: Recessive gene = malignant hyperthermia response to stress; affects survival and meat

17

antemortem inspection of livestock

Inspection of individual live animals prior to slaughter
Helps keep ill animals out of food chain
Helps reduce contamination of abattoir

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inspection pricedure

Observe animals at rest
Observe animals in motion from one or both sides (varies by plant / supervisor)
Determine if animal is normal or abnormal
Suspect & condemned tagged as such!

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Public Health Veterinarian

Makes a DISPOSITION at inspection

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"subject"

Cow is bought by Slaughter Plant is "subject" to passing inspection at slaughter

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"suspect"

Public Health Vet’s disposition at antemortem inspection is "suspect"
-history of recent illness
-signs indicative of localized disease condition

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condemmed

signs indicative of generalized disease condition

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conditions resulting in condemnation

- 4 D's (dead, dying, diseased, disabled)
- systemic infection
- systemic metabolic conditions
- when you can hold animal for possible recovery

24

downer cattle

FSIS prohibits the slaughter of cattle that are not able to stand or walk
have a high probability of being infected with BSE

25

regulatory diseases

M. bovis
Brucellosis

26

reportable diseases

Meat inspection provides an additional opportunity for surveillance of animal diseases
Reportable / notifiable diseases must, by law, be reported when detected at slaughter

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slaughter is a 2 step process

stunning
exsanguination

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humane slaughter

Livestock must be rendered insensible to pain before being shackled, hoisted, or cut

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exception to humane slaughter

ritual slaughter (kosher, halal)
-only for the stun before sticking part of the law

30

Kosher and Halal

Under Jewish and Islamic law, animals for slaughter must be healthy and uninjured at the time of death, which rules out driving a bolt into the brain