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Flashcards in Transport In Humans Deck (19)
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1

Arteries

- Carry blood away from the heart.

- blood is pumped out at high pressure, so the arteries have thick muscular and elastic walls to withstand this.

-small lumen

2

Capillaries

-one cell thick

-Carry blood to the body cells.

-flow through every tissue and connect arteries to veins. Deliver and remove substances from cells.

-Thin and permeable walls allowing the exchange of gases

-Tiny vessel with narrow lumen

- Relatively thin walls

3

Veins

- Carry blood back toward the heart.

-These vessels have a large lumen, allowing them to carry a large amount of blood.

-The valves within the vein prevent the blood, which is at a low pressure, from flowing the wrong way.

4

White blood cells fight

Disease

5

Simple unicellular organisms can rely of diffusion for movement of substances in and out of the cell because..

They have a large surface area: volume ratio and therefore it is easier to diffuse across because it is shorter.

6

Why do multicellular systems need a transport system?

Because they have a small surface area: volume ratio and it is harder to diffuse across.

Need a transport system to deliver materials and remove waste products

7

How do red blood cells adapt to transport oxygen?

Their shape aids their function, they have a biconcobe shape and a larger surface area for haemoglobin.

8

what makes up blood?

plasma
red blood cells
white blood cells
platelets

9

plasma

carries: dissolved food, urea, hormones, carbon dioxide ,heat energy and antibodies

10

why do we need blood to circulate around our bodies

so that oxygen and glucose can get to our working muscles.

because it removes co2 and waste materials (Urea)

11

What structures in the heart keep the blood flowing in one direction?

The valves in the main blood vessels (in the heart and veins)

12

red blood cell

made in the bone marrow
length of life- 120 days
no nucleus
main function- transporting oxygen around the body

most common blood cells, they have several adaptations that make them efficient at transporting oxygen. Their shape aids their function.

E.G. biconcove shape (8)

larger surface area for haemoglobin

13

what are the types of white blood cells?

phagocytes
lymphocytes

14

phagocyte

made in the bone marrow
length of life- a few days
lobed nucleus
main funtion- kill pathogens by engulfing and then digesting them

15

Lymphocyte

made in the bone marrow
length of life- weeks/months/years
large nucleus
main funtion- produces chemicals called antibodies

16

Platelets

made in the bone marrow
length of life- 6-8 days
no nucleus
main function- form a protective barrier over wounds (scab)

clump together to form a blood clot and stop blood flow when you get a cut, without them u would bleed out and die.

17

Why does the heart need the coronary artery?

Because it gives it what it needs to survive: nutrients, oxygen and glucose. Delivers o2 and glucose for respiration

18

What side of the heart is thicker

the left because it has to pump blood around the whole body

19

The effect of exersize on heart rate

your heart rate increases because you need more energy, so it increases to pump more blood around the body and to get to provide o2 and glucose for muscle cells for respiration. Removing waste products/materials for respiration e.g. co2