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Flashcards in Transport Layer Deck (42)
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What is "logical communication"?

From an application's perspective, it is as if the hosts running the processes were directly connected; in reality, the hosts may be on opposite sides of the planet, connected via numerous routers and a side range of link types.


Between which layers does the transport layer reside?

The transport layer is below the application layer and above the network layer.


How does a household mail example serve as an analogy for explaining how the transport layer relates to the network layer?

application messages: letters in envelopes
processes: cousins
hosts: houses
transport-layer protocol: Ann and Bill
network-layer protocol: postal service


What are the two transport layer protocols of the Internet?

UDP and TCP.


What is demultiplexing?

At the receiving end, the transport layer examines the fields in the segment to identify the receiving socket and then directs the segment to that socket.


What is multiplexing?

The job of gathering data chunks at the source host from different sockets, encapsulating each data chunk with header information to create segments, and passing segments to the network layer.


What are the segment fields that help with multiplexing/demultiplexing for UDP?

source port number and destination port number.


What are the segment fields that help with multiplexing and demultiplexing for TCP

Source IP address, source port number, destination IP address and destination port number


What is a connection establishment request?

A connection establishment request is nothing more than a TCP segment with destination port number and a special connection-establishment bit set in the TCP header.


Why choose UDP over TCP if it isn't reliable?

TCP is considerably slower than UDP because of its handshaking process and also its congestion control. If UDP is selected the application can be designed to add functionality to UDP's no-frills delivery service. UDP also has a smaller packet header size (8 bytes vs TCP's 20)


Why not choose UDP?

UDP's lack of congestion control is a large issue. Lack of congestion control in UDP can result in high loss rates between a USP sender and receiver, and the crowding out of TCP sessions


Describe the UDP segment structure and each of its parts

Source port, destination port
Length - length of the segment including the header in bytes.
Checksum - a 16 bit number to which all 16 bit words are added. The sum should be 1111111111111111. If one of the bits is a zero we will know there has been an error.
Application data - data being sent


What is the end-end principle?

Since certain functionality must be implemented on an end-end basis, functions placeced at the lower levels may be redundant or of little value when compaired to the cost of providing them at a higher level


What are ARQ protocols?

The control messages that allow the receiver to let the sender know that the message has been received correctly and what has been received in error and thus required repeating.


What are ACK and NAK

The positive ACK and negative NAK acknowledgment replies in the message dictation scenario are examples of feedback from the receiver to the sender`


What is a stop-and-wait protocol?

A protocol in which the sender stops and waits for a response from the receiver before sending the next packet


What is a sequence number?

A sequence number is a header field of TCP segments that allows sender and receivers to determine whether packets were received in retransmission or not.


What is the utilization of the sender/

The reaction of time the sender is actually busy sending bits into the channel.

Usender = L/R / RTT + L/R


What is pipelining?

Pipelining is when the sender is allowed to send multiple packets before waiting for a response


What are the consequences of pipelining for rdt's?

- The range of sequence numbers must be increased
- the sender and receiver sides of the protocols may have to buffer more than one packet
- the rand of sequence numbers needed and the buffering requirements will depend on the manner in which a data transfer protocol responds to lost corrupted and overly delayed packets.


What is a Go-Back-N protocol?

GBN is when the sender is allowed to transmit multiple packets without waiting for an ACK but is constrained to have no more than some max allowable number N of unacknowledged packets in the pipeline.


What is a window size?

The range of permissible sequence numbers of transmitted but not yet acknowledged packets


What is a cumulative acknowledgment?

an ack that indicates that all packets with a sequence number up to and including n have been correctly received at the receiver.


What is a selective repeat protocol?

A selective repeat protocol is when the sender acknowledges all correctly received packets regardless of packet order.


What are the pieces of a TCP segment?

Source port, destination port, sequence number, acknowledgment number, header length, flags, receive window, internet checksum, urgent data pointer, options and data


What is the sequence number of a TCP segment?

The sequence number for a segment is the byte-stream number of the first byte in the segment


What is a cumulative acknowledgment?

TCP uses cumulative acknowledgements and this TCP only acknowledges bytes up to the first missing byte in the stream


How do we calculate EstimatedRTT?

Estimated RTT is a weighted average where the previous RTTs count more than the most recent ones. the formula is 0.875*Previously estimated RTT average + 0.125*most recently estimated RTT


What does setting a timeout interval have to do with congestion control?

If there is an expiration of the timer, TCP will retransmit the segment and double the timer time. If the timer is restarted after either of data of ACK being received, it will derive the timeout interval from the Estimated RTT and DevRTT


What is a duplicate ACK?

In TCP a duplicate ACK is sent instead of a NAK. The receiver will send a duplicate ACK when they receive a piece of data out of order and detect a gap in the data they have received. They will resend the ACK from the last piece of in-order data.