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Flashcards in Transportation in Plants Deck (31):

What is Photosynthesis?

Its a process in which, plants prepare glucose using carbon dioxide and water as raw materials. oxygen and glucose are the products


Why is sunlight and presence of chlorophyll and optimum temperature needed for proper photosynthesis?

Optimum temperature is needed for proper functioning of enzymes.
Chlorophyll is needed for sunlight
and sunlight is needed for photosynthesis to provide plant with energy.


Write down the chemical equation for photosynthesis taking place.

6H2O + 6Co2 = C6 H12 O6 + 6O2


Describe leaf structure and its properties?

1) Leaf is broad, which increases surface area for absorption of maximum amount of sunlight and this sunlight will be used in the process of photosynthesis.
2) Leaf is thin, so gases need not pass through so many layers before exchanging. Making sure gaseous exchange
3) Leaf surface is covered with Cuticle a waxy layer to prevent excessive evaporation from leaf surface so more water is left for photosynthesis.
4) Leaf stalk or peptide holds a leaf in such a position, that they hardly overlap each other so all the leaves can get maximum amount of sunlight.


What is the function of Cuticle?

It is a waxy layer upon the leafs surface, produced by epidermal cells, which prevents evaporation of water from leaves surface.


What is the function of Epidermic?

Single layered closely packed cells, they protect the inner layer of the tissues, they do not contain chloroplast as they are transparent. they also produce cuticle


What is the function of Palisade mesophyll ?

they are a layer of rectangular shaped cells, they contain rich supply of chloroplast, this is the main site, where photosynthesis takes place in plant.


What is the function of Spongy mesophyll?

A bunch of irregular shaped cells, with air spaces between them, the air spaces help in gaseous exchange, they contain chloroplast but not as much as palisade mesophyll, photosynthesis takes place here


What is the function of Lower Epidermic?

1) It is a layer of closely packed cells, with opening in between called stomata
2) through stomata gaseous exchange takes place, and one stoma is bounded by two guard cells.
3) guard cells contain chlorophyll, which help in closing of stomata.
4) Through stomata transpiration also takes place.


What is vascular bundle?

Vascular bundle contains of
1) Xylem: Transports water and salts to from roots to stem and leaves

2) Phloem: Trans locates nutrients to different parts of a plant.

3) Cambium: Layer of actively dividing cells, when divide towards xylem, xylem cells are produced, when divide towards phloem, phloem cells are made.


What happens to concentration of k positive ions and glucose inside cells when the light intensity is high and how does it effect the water potential of the inside of the guard cell?

Heavy light results in :
1) increased concentration of k+ ions and glucose.
2) Low water potential inside guard cells


What happens to concentration of k positive ions and glucose inside cells when the light intensity is low and how does it effect the water potential of the inside of the guard cell?

Low light intensity results in:
1) less concentration of K+ ions and glucose
2) high water potential in guard cells.


What is the Fate of Glucose?

1) Glucose release in the plant during respiration.
2) Glucose is turned into sucrose before being trans-located to different parts of a plant, through phloem.
3) Glucose is turned into starch before being stored
4) glucose can be turned into fats to be stored in the roots of a plant
5) glucose can be used to make cellulose cell wall.
6) It can combine with nitrates, to make amino acids and make protoplasm and enzymes.


What is the function of epidermic?

1) Protects the inner tissues of the stem-root and leaf
2) Root hair cell is developed from it
3) produces cuticle


What is the function of Cortex?

It acts as a packing material, keeping tissues at their place and also used for storing starch grain.


What is the function of endodermic?

1) found in root and help in exerting root pressure, to send water up in the stem against gravity.
2) Transpiration pull also occurs because of it, which helps in sending of water to the leaf


What is Xylem?

1) It is a dead vessel, which transports water and salts to the stem and leaves.
2) It provides strength to the plant and supports the stem to remain upright.


What is phloem?

It is a living tube, Which trans-locates glucose in the form of sucrose and amino acids from leaves to different parts of a plant.


What is Cambium?

It is a layer of actively dividing cells. When divided towards xylem, xylem cells are produced, but when towards phloem, phloem cells are produced.


How are amino acids made in the plant?

Nitrogen in the form of nitrates get absorbed from the soil through active transport bu root hair cell, later it gets mixed with glucose to from amino acids, A plant deficient of nitrates will have stunted growth and weak leaves.


How is magnesium absorbed into the plant and why is it important?

Magnesium is taken by root hair cell by active transport, It is needed for chlorophyll synthesis, it is very important, as a plant deficient of magnesium will have yellow leaves and low rate of photosynthesis.


What is the process of transpiration?



How does rate of wind effect, the rate of transpiration?

The wind causes particles from the front of the plant to disperse, resulting in making a suitable concentration gradient.


How does Humidity effect rate of Transpiration?

The excess water particles outside the plant, makes the concentration gradient outside not low at all, so water vapours do not disperse out.


How does temperature and light intensity effect rate of Transpiration?

The light intensity increases temperature, so increase in temperature is the same as light intensity. The particles due to the heat gain kinetic energy resulting in them hitting each other harder, and them dispersing, therefore making the concentration gradient outside low. and more transpiration.


What are the ways of measuring rate of Transpiration?

1) By Cobalt Chloride. It is blue when normal, but as soon as water vapours hit it, it turns pink.
2) by an apparatus called Potometer


What is Wilting?

1) When a plants rate of transpiration increases then its intake of water, the situation is known as wilting.
2) The plant loses turgor and gets flimsy


What are the advantages of wilting?

1) Plant gets folded, therefore reducing its exposure to sunlight ultimately resulting in reduced transpiration.
2) In flaccid plant, the stomata is close, so rate of transpiration is enormously decreases, and water starts to store up.


What are the disadvantages of wilting?

1) Water becomes a limiting factor, when a plant wilts and rate of photosynthesis is reduced.
2) As stomata close gaseous exchange and CO2 does not get to the plant, therefore reducing photosynthesis.


What are the 2 compensation points of wilting?

1) At the time of Dusk/Dawn the rate of transpiration, becomes equal to the rate of respiration, this resulting in no gaseous exchange.
2) Oxygen produced during photosynthesis is used by plants for respiration and carbon dioxide produced during respiration is used for photosynthesis


What is the Structure of Phloem?

it trans-locates glucose in the form of sucrose through the plant, and also trans-locates amino acids to the different parts of a plant (movement is up to the plant and downwards to the soil) Bidirectional movement.
2) It is a living tube which is thin walled and has cellulose in its walls, it has cytoplasm and has perforated walls, which are placed horizontally in the tube, nucleus is found in the cell known as companion cell which is found next to the phloem