Flashcards in Treating Abnormality Deck (39):
Therapies: What therapies have been created based on the approaches?
-Rational Emotive Behvaioural therapy (REBT)
Beiological Therapies: What therapies have been based on the biological approach?
-Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Biological Therapies: What are drug therapies?
-Anti-psychotic drugs (neuroleptics)
-Antidepressant drugs (MAOIs, SSRSs)
-Anti-anxiety drugs (anxiolytics)
Biological Therapies: What are anti-psychotic drugs?
Anti-psychotic drugs (neuroleptics): Used to treat schizophrenia by reducing typical symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder and paranoia. These work by blocking dopamine receptors and so reduce dopamine’s effect (research has found high levels cause schizophrenia).
Biological Therapies: What are antidepressant drugs?
Antidepressant drugs (MAOI’s and SSRSs, e.g. Prozac): Used to treat depression by reducing symptoms such as anxiety, panic attacks and eating disorders. They work by reducing the rate of re-absorption of neurotransmitters or block the enzyme that breaks them down (low levels of serotonin and noradrenaline are associated with depression).
Biological Therapies: What are anti-anxiety drugs?
Anti-anxiety drugs (anxiolytic,
e.g. eta-blockers and valium): Used to treat anxiety and are used for a variety of disorders, including phobias and general anxiety disorder. They slow down brain activity, causing relaxation. Beta-blockers reduce heart rate and blood pressure.
Biological Therapies: What are the criticisms of drug therapy?
+Allow a normal life
+Cheap, quick, convenient
-Only reduce symptoms
-Not effective for anyone
Biological Therapies: How is allowing patients a normal life a criticism of drug therapies?
The symptoms are often greatly reduced, allowing patients to function normally and live a normal life.
Biological Therapies: How is being cheap, quick and convenient a criticism of drug therapies?
Drugs are cheap, quicker and more convenient than some other psychological therapies, such as Psychoanalysis. They work instantly and are much easier to take.
Biological Therapies: How is drugs only reducing symptoms a criticism of drug therapies?
The drugs do not cure the disorders, they only reduce the symptoms which means if a patient stops taking the drugs, the symptoms will return, and schizophrenics are likely to have to take these for life. They can also lead to dependency where people think they need them to survive.
Biological Therapies: How is not being effective for everyone a criticism of drug therapies?
They are not effective for everyone, for example anti-psychotic drugs do not work for about 40-50% of patients, meaning some can never be helped.
Biological Therapies: What is Electroconvulsive Therapy?
ECT is use rarely for people who are severely depressed and neither psychological therapies nor drugs have worked for them. It involves giving patients an electric shock to try and rewire their brain.
Biological Therapies: What are the stages of ECT?
-The patient is given a muscle relaxant and general anaesthetic. A low voltage shock (70-139 volts) is applied for about 0.5 seconds, usually bilaterally (both sides of the brain).
-This leads to an artificial epileptic fit, which is reduced by the muscle relaxant so the body hardly moves.
-Patients wake up within 5 minutes and are only aware of having gone to sleep.
Treatment are usually given twice or three times weekly, and a total of six and 12 treatments is usual but some patients need more for full recovery. Afterwards treatment for depression needs to continue to maintain recovery.
Biological Therapies: What are the criticisms of ECT?
+Provides an alternative way to treat depression
-We know very little about the therapy
Biological Therapies: How is an alternative way to treat depression a criticism of ECT?
It provides an alternative to treat depression for some patients, when drugs don’t work. Without therapies they might become suicidal and die, but 50-70% of people benefit from ECT.
Biological Therapies: How is knowing very little about the therapy a criticism of ECT?
A criticism of this therapy is that we know little about the therapy and we don’t know if it is more dangerous than we think, reported side effects already include memory impairment, headaches, cardiovascular changes and fear/anxiety.
Biological Therapies: How is ethical issues a criticism of ECT?
There may be ethical issues as someone with a severe mental issue may not grasp the nature and consequences of ECT, so cannot give fully informed consent.
Behavioural Therapies: What therapies have been based on the behavioural approach?
Behavioural Therapies: What is Systematic Desensitisation?
-This therapy works specifically on phobias and anxieties. The aim behind it is to put out the fear response and replace it will relaxation by systematically making a person more and more immune to their fear gradually – this is counter conditioning.
-This theory is based on reciprocal inhibition which is the idea that it is impossible to make people feel two opposite responses at once so one must disappear; as feat and relaxation cannot be felt at the same time, fear must be eliminated.
-There are three steps:
-Creating a fear hierarchy
-Working through the hierarchy
Behavioural Therapies: What are the stages of Systematic Desensitisation?
-Relaxation techniques: The therapist teaches the client techniques such as controlled breathing and progressive muscle relaxation so it calms the client.
-Constructing a desensitisation hierarchy: The patient and the therapist will write up a list of scenarios involving the thing they fear most and put them in order of the amount of fear they would cause (from lowest to highest). Each following scenario should cause more anxiety than the previous.
-Working through the hierarchy: Through the aid of the therapist, the client works through the scenarios whilst learning to be completely relaxed using the techniques they learnt. The client must be able to get through each scenario whilst maintaining a state of calmness before they move on to the next.
Behavioural Therapies: What are the criticisms of Systematic Desensitisation?
+Very successful in treating phobias
-Ineffective in treating other disorders other than phobias
Behavioural Therapies: How is being successful in treating phobias a criticism of Systematic Desensitisation?
This therapy has found to be extremely successful in treating simple and specific phobias. It has a very high success rate (75%) with flying and spider phobias. Patients have a reduced rate of anxiety in real life, meaning it seems to generalise well to real situations.
Behavioural Therapies: How is being ineffective in treating disorders other than phobias a criticism of Systematic Desensitisation?
It is ineffective in treating other disorders apart from phobias; this means it is not as flexible as other therapies such as CBT and Psychoanalysis which can be adapted.
Behavioural Therapies: How are ethical issues a criticism of Systematic Desensitisation?
Some ethical issues arise from it, as the patient is put under great harm and distress as their anxiety can reach extreme levels, and therefore the client needs to be monitored carefully and needs to give fully informed consent.
Cognitive Therapies: What therapies have been created based on the Cognitive Approach?
Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT)
Cognitive Therapies: What is Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy?
This therapy is based on the cognitive approach and was developed by Albert Ellis. Once completed, the client is able to move from irrational beliefs to rational ones. This can make them feel better to the point that they can see themselves accurately and accept themselves in spite of their faults.
-It aims to challenge and replace irrational and dysfunctional thoughts with rational ones. It is based on the ABC model.
-There are a number of stages:
-Identifying negative thoughts
Cognitive Therapies: What are the stages of REBT?
-Identifying negative thoughts: the client is encouraged to keep a diary and record all the negative, irrational and self-defeating thoughts that come into their head. The client is also able to acknowledge the problem.
-Reviewing the diary, monitoring and challenging the thoughts: the therapist takes a look at the diary and challenges the thoughts outlined in them – the arguments normally are very strong and so this therapy is more confrontational and involves heated debate so the negative thoughts can be destroyed once the patient loses the argument and their irrationality can be exposed to themselves.
Cognitive Therapies: What are the criticisms of REBT?
+Very effective when treating depression, OCD and anxiety
-Ineffective in treating disorders liek schizophrenia
Cognitive Therapies: How is it being very effective a criticism of REBT?
REBT has been shown to be very effective in treating depression and is shown to produce longer lasting recovery than antidepressants. It is also effective in treating Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and social anxiety. Sue to this, the therapy is extremely flexible and has diverse applications as it can deal with multiple disorders – CBT is widely used by the NHS.
Cognitive Therapies: How is it being quite short-lasting a criticism of REBT?
REBT is short as it is limited to some sessions that last no longer than a few weeks. Therefore, it is less time-consuming and very cost-effective when compared to psychoanalysis – it is cheaper and more convenient than it.
Cognitive Therapies: How are ethical issues a criticism of REBT?
The therapy can create ethical issues as there is an element of insight which can damage the client. Also, the client may feel blame as they are technically responsible for their disorder and if they are unable to change, this causes even more distress (negative thoughts may be rational (for example, if someone feels they have failed, and they actually have failed everything.).
Cognitive Therapies: How is the ineffectiveness for some disorders a criticism of REBT?
Although REBT is successful in treating a range of disorders, it is very ineffective with disorders like schizophrenia – these patients are unable to monitor and change their own thoughts.
Psychodynamic Therapies: What therapies have been created based on the Psychodynamic Approach?
Psychodynamic Therapies: What is psychoanalysis?
Psychoanalysis is based on the assumption that abnormality is caused by conflicts hidden in the unconscious. This therapy attempts to trace and uncover these conflicts and bring them into the conscious mind so the patient will be aware of them. The therapist tries to help the patient gain insight into their minds and understanding about the real causes of their abnormality. By gaining insight, the patient is able to work through their abnormality and are now conscious of why it happened and eventually cure it.
-There are two methods of assessing the unconscious:
Psychodynamic Therapies: What is dream analysis?
Freud called dream ‘the road to the unconscious’ as he believed they allowed us to understand the unconscious desired (our repressed wishes leak out whilst we sleep). Here the patient will describe recent dreams (manifest content) to the therapist who will interpret everything they say as to what the hidden meaning (latent content) is. Everything that happens in dreams are symbolic and disguised so things we do not wish to face do not wake us up.
Psychodynamic Therapies: What is free association?
This is where the client will often lie or sit facing away from their therapist and say whatever comes into their heads, their thought and feelings, and the therapist will note down what they say and offer interpretations to the client. Even silence can be interpreted. This speaking offers insight and recovery.
Psychodynamic Therapies: What are the criticisms of psychoanalysis?
-Effectiveness is uncertain
Psychodynamic Therapies: How is the uncertainty of the effectiveness a criticism of psychoanalysis?
-Eysenck thought that this therapy made patients worse than they were initially, let alone cure them.
-However, Bergin found that around 80% of the 10,000 patients he reviewed had benefited from it, so he thought it was successful.
As evidence is contradictory, it means the therapy is unreliable or that the effectiveness depends on the disorder.