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Flashcards in Treating Diabetes Deck (25):
0

What diabetes gives a honey tasting urine?

Mellitus

1

What are the two types of mellitus diabetes?

Type 1- lack of insulin production
Type 2- insulin resistant

2

What type of diabetes is due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ß-cells?

Mellitus, type 1

3

What diabetes is due to impaired secretion of insulin or lack of effect in the periphery?

Mellitus, type 2

4

What are the two types of insipidus diabetes?

Neurogenic- vasopressin deficient
Nephrogenic- lack of response to secreted vasopressin

5

Where and why is vasopressin release?

Synthesised in the neurones of the hypothalamus and secreted in response to dehydration

6

What does vasopressin do?

Increases water permeability of the collecting duct

7

What is the synthetic version of vasopressin?

Desmopressin

8

What are the benefits of desmopressin?

It's not degraded by serum proteases, has a longer half life of 3.5 hrs. Administered orally or injected, lasts 6-18 hrs.

9

What his preporinsulin cleaved to give?

A chain of 21aa and B chain of 30aa which is insulin

10

How is insulin stored?

In secretory vesicles, zinc clusters 6 insulin molecules together

11

What is insulin effect on muscle cells?

Glucose uptake is increased and there is an increase in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis

12

What is the transporter in muscle cells which aids in glucose uptake?

GLUT4

13

How is insulin administered?

Parenterally, usually subcutaneously

14

How is insulin produced?

From DNA using recombinant techniques

15

What preparation of insulin is fast acting?

Soluble monomeric and insulin lispro

16

What preparations of insulin is slow acting?

Insulin lispro and glargine

17

What is the normal blood glucose concentration?

11.1mM

18

What is hyperglycaemia?

High blood glucose levels

19

What is hypoglycaemia?

Low blood glucose levels, too much glucose has been removed

20

What is insulin resistance associated with?

High levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids, obesity and sedentary lifestyles

21

What is insulin resistant type two diabetes mellitus treated with?

metformin

22

What are the benefits of metformin?

Half life of 3-6hrs, excreted uncharged and does not cause hypoglycaemia

23

What are the effects of metformin?

In the liver glucose production is reduced, in the periphery glucose uptake is increases (GLUT4 translocation is used)

24

What two types of drugs can be used to treat type 2 diabetes?

Sulphonylureas and glinides.
Both taken orally, inhibit the ATP depends potassium channel, bind to serum albumin and compete with other drugs that bind.
Sulphonylureas are long lasting whereas glinides are short lasting. Both have a risk of hypoglycaemia