Flashcards in Treating Diabetes Deck (25):
What diabetes gives a honey tasting urine?
What are the two types of mellitus diabetes?
Type 1- lack of insulin production
Type 2- insulin resistant
What type of diabetes is due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ß-cells?
Mellitus, type 1
What diabetes is due to impaired secretion of insulin or lack of effect in the periphery?
Mellitus, type 2
What are the two types of insipidus diabetes?
Neurogenic- vasopressin deficient
Nephrogenic- lack of response to secreted vasopressin
Where and why is vasopressin release?
Synthesised in the neurones of the hypothalamus and secreted in response to dehydration
What does vasopressin do?
Increases water permeability of the collecting duct
What is the synthetic version of vasopressin?
What are the benefits of desmopressin?
It's not degraded by serum proteases, has a longer half life of 3.5 hrs. Administered orally or injected, lasts 6-18 hrs.
What his preporinsulin cleaved to give?
A chain of 21aa and B chain of 30aa which is insulin
How is insulin stored?
In secretory vesicles, zinc clusters 6 insulin molecules together
What is insulin effect on muscle cells?
Glucose uptake is increased and there is an increase in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
What is the transporter in muscle cells which aids in glucose uptake?
How is insulin administered?
Parenterally, usually subcutaneously
How is insulin produced?
From DNA using recombinant techniques
What preparation of insulin is fast acting?
Soluble monomeric and insulin lispro
What preparations of insulin is slow acting?
Insulin lispro and glargine
What is the normal blood glucose concentration?
What is hyperglycaemia?
High blood glucose levels
What is hypoglycaemia?
Low blood glucose levels, too much glucose has been removed
What is insulin resistance associated with?
High levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids, obesity and sedentary lifestyles
What is insulin resistant type two diabetes mellitus treated with?
What are the benefits of metformin?
Half life of 3-6hrs, excreted uncharged and does not cause hypoglycaemia
What are the effects of metformin?
In the liver glucose production is reduced, in the periphery glucose uptake is increases (GLUT4 translocation is used)