Treating Toxicity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Treating Toxicity Deck (22)
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1

What is more likely to occur in poisoning, hypertension or hypotension?

Hypotension
Treat by elevating foot of bed and giving IV sodium chloride or a colloid to increase plasma volume.

2

If someone is having a convulsion as a result of an overdose/ poisoning, what can be done?

Leave if under 5 mins
IV diazepam or lorazepam (NB benzo's should NOT be given by IM route)
If IV not available:
Buccal midazolam (not licensed for adults or children unfer 3 months)
Rectal diazepam

3

What is activated charcoal effective at reversing?

Poisons in the GI system, reduces absorption, the sooner its given the better, efficacy reduced after 1 hour after ingestion of poison.
Repeated doses of charcoal effective for: Carbamazepine, phenobarbital, quinine, theophylline, dapsone.

4

Symptoms of aspirin poisoning? How to treat?

hyperventilating
tinnitus!!!
deafness !!!
sweating

TREAT USING CHARCOAL, SODIUM BICARBONATE TO INCREASE URINARY EXCRETION, CORRECT K+ CONC BEFORE GIVING THIS.

5

What are the early symptoms of paracetamol poisoning? what is the antidote?

Nausea and vomiting
Liver damage at its max 3-4 days after

Acetylcysteine - most effective when given up to 8 hours after ingestion

6

How to treat antidepressant overdose?

Activated charcoal to limit absorption
Sodium bicarbonate to stop arrhythmias

7

How could you treat Dystonias resulting from overdose of phenothiazines and related drugs?

Procyclidine

or Diazepam

8

Overdose of benzo's?

Flumazenil

9

Overdose of beta blockers?

Atropine IV- corrects bradycardia

10

How do we treat Calcium channel blocker overdose?

Charcoal
Calcium chloride
Calcium gluconate
Atropine for bradycardia

11

How to treat Lithium toxicity?

Heamodyalisis
increase fluid intake to increase urine output (but don't use diuretics)

12

How to manage Cocaine overdose?

IV Diazepam to reduce agitation
Cooling measures for hyperthermia
Similar treatment for ecstasy (MDMA) poisoning

13

What is the treatment for an Iron overdose?

desferrioxamine mesilate

14

What are the signs of lithium toxicity? What about if it is severe (i.e. plasma conc over 2.0)?

Vomitting
Diarrhoea
Ataxia (uncontrolled body movement)
Tremor
Twitching
Slurred speech

Severe:
Convulsions
Coma
renal failure
hypotension

15

What are the signs of Theophylline toxicity?

Hint: theophylline comes from the same family as caffeine. Think what happens when you took too many pro plus?!
Agitation
Restlessness
Dilated pupils
Tachycardia
Vomiting
Hyperglycaemia

Severe hypokalaemia may also develop

16

How is theophylline toxicity managed?

Repeated doses of activated charcoal
Manage hypokalaemia with Infusion of potassium chloride
Short acting beta blocker e.g. esmolol for severe tachycardia

17

Somebody has been stung by a bee and has had a severe anaphylactic reaction to it. How should this be managed?

Epipen
IM adrenaline/ epinephrine

18

Signs of digoxin toxicity?

Nausea & vomiting & diarrhoea
abdominal pain
dizziness & confusion, delirium
vision disturbance (blurred or yellow vision).
Cardiac disturbance: irregular heartbeat
ventricular tachycardia

19

What is the antidote for digoxin toxicity?

DigiFab
A digoxin specific antibody

20

What is the reversal agent for heparin toxicity?

Protamine sulphate injection

21

What is methaemoglobinaemia? What is the reversal agent?

Higher than normal level of methemoglobin in the blood caused by oxidative stress. Methemoglobin results in a reduced ability to release oxygen to tissues and thereby hypoxia (tissue death) occurs.
Reversal agent: Methylthioninium chloride injection

22

Treatment of iron poisoning?

Desferrioxamine mesilate (Deferoxamine)
Used for hemochromatosis, a disease of iron accumulation that can be either genetic or acquired