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Flashcards in Treatment Flashcards Deck (92):
0

What is the treatment for blastomycosis?

Itraconazole
MOA: inhibit fungal sterol synthesis by inhibiting p450 enzyme (14-alpha-sterol demethylase) that converts lanosterol to ergosterol

1

What is the tx for mucor?

Amphotericin B
MOA: binds ergosterol and forms pores in the membrane

2

What is used for tx of neonatal opioid withdrawal?

Tincture of opium

3

What is used for warfarin OD.?

Vit K

4

What is the treatment for acidosis or hyperkalemia?

Sodium bicarbonate

5

What is the treatment for cryptococcal meningitis?

Amphotericin b and flucytosine
MOA: binds to ergosterol and creates pores in the membrane
MOA: inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis by conversion of 5-fluorouracil by cytosine deaminase

6

What is the prophylactic tx and long term maintenance for cryptococcal meningitis?

Fluconazole
MOA: inhibit ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting p450

7

What is the tx for campylobacter?

Erythromycin

8

What is the treatment for agitation?

Haloperidol

9

What is the treatment for someone with drug-induced Parkinsonism?

A centrally acting antimuscarinic - benztropine or trihexyphenidyl

10

What is used to tx acetaminophen OD and how does it work?

N-acetyl cysteine - binds to the the toxic metabolite (NAPQI) of acetaminophen metabolism (by sulfation and glucoronidation). It also provides sulfhydryl groups to enhance the non-toxic sulfation elimination of acetaminophen.

11

What is the tx for iron poisoning?

Deferoxamine

12

What is the tx of aspirin OD?

Decrease GI absorption
Correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Alkalinization of urine to increase excretion

13

What is the tx of TCA OD.

Prevent arrythmias = MCC
Sodium bicarbonate

14

What is the tx for barb OD?

Decrease GI absorption
Correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Alkalinization of urine to increase excretion

15

What is the tx for severe asthma, sensitivity to perennial allergen and asthma with incomplete response to steroids?

Omalizumab - anti IgE

16

What is used in the tx of waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma?

Bortezomib - a proteasome inhibitor

17

What is the tx for heparin induced thrombocytopenia?

Argatrobran
Lepirudin
Hirudin
All are direct thrombin inhibitors - bind at the active site

19

What is the tx for acute dystonias?

Anti histamine s (diphenhydramine)
Anticholinergic (benztropine/trihexyphenidyl

20

What is the tx for anthrax?

Cipro

21

What is the tx for ascites?

Low sodium diet
Furosemide and spironolactone

22

What is the tx for oral thrush?

Nystatin -
MOA = binds ergosterol and forms membrane pores that allow leakage of electrolytes

23

What is the tx for Listeria?

Ampicillin

24

What is used for pneumococcal and H. Flu meningitis?

Ceftriaxone

25

What is the tx for tularemia and plague?

Streptomycin
MOA: binds 30s subunit and inhibits formation of the initation complex

26

What is the tx for wet AMD.

IV ranizumab and pegatinib - anti-VEGF abs

27

What is the tx for non-small cell carcinomas?

EGFR inhibitors - erlotinib and geftinib

28

What is alpha-INF used for?

Tx of hep b and C
Hairy cell leukemia
Condyloma acuminatum
Kaposi's

42

What is the tx for tardive dyskinesia?

Reduce dose of offending antipsychotic (most often risperidone) or stop the antipsychotic and replace with clozapine

43

What is the tx of choice for hairy cell leukemia?

Cladribine- a purine analog that is resistant to degradation by adenosine deaminase. This allows the drug to build up to high concentrations and become incorporated into the DNA causing breaks.

44

What is used for the treatment of side effects of cholinesterases used in myasthenia gravis?

Scopolamine and hyoscyamine because these are selective muscarinic antagonists that won't affect cholinesterase activities at the nicotinic cholinergic receptors as in skeletal muscle so you can still treat myasthenia gravis

45

What can be used to prevent radio contrast induced nephropathy?

N-acetylcysteine

46

What is used to prevent cardio toxicity of anthracyclines?

Dexrazoxane - iron chelating

47

What is the tx for serotonin syndrome?

Cyproheptadine -
First generation histamine antagonist with nonspecific 5HT1 and 2 antagonism

48

What are the first line tx for a-fib?

Beta blockers
Calcium channel blockers

49

What is the tx for prevention of TIAs?

Low dose daily aspirin

50

What is the tx for diptheria in order of importance?

1. Passive immunity - antitoxin
2. Erythromycin/penicillin
3. DPT vaccine

51

What is the tx for trigeminal neuralgia?

Carbamazepine

52

What is the tx for acute migraine?

Triptans

53

What is the tx for cluster headache?

Inhaled oxygen
Sumatriptan

54

What drug can be used for prophylaxis of a variceal bleed?

Propranolol

55

What is the tx for unresectable melanoma?

Vemurafenib - a BRAF kinase inhibitor

56

What should be given with exposure to heavy isotopes of radioactivity?

Potassium iodide to compete with the radioactive iodide for uptake into the thyroid.

57

What is the best tx for a patient who has tonic clonic and absence seizures?

Valproic acid

58

What's the tx for beta blocker overdose?

Glucagon - acts on G protein receptors and increases cAMP thus increasing calcium during muscle contraction. Will see improvement in heart rate and bp within minutes

59

What is the tx for acute intermittent porphyria?

Glucose and heme

60

What is the tx for urea cycle disorders?

Decrease protein intake

61

What is the tx for staph epidermidis?

Vancomycin
Rifampin
Gentamicin

62

What is the tx for s. pneumonae

3rd generation ceph

63

What is the tx for s. agalactiae in pregnancy?

A penicillin or ampicillin at 35-37 weeks

64

What is the tx for group B strep meningitis?

Pen G
3rd gen ceph

65

What is the tx for necrotizing fasciitis?

Pen G
Clindamycin

66

Where should thoracentesis be performed at mid axillary line?

Between ribs 5-7

67

Where should thoracentesis be performed at mid axillary line?

Between ribs 7-9

68

Where should thoracentesis be performed along the para vertebral line?

Ribs 9-11

69

Where do the intercostal vein, artery and nerve lie?

At the lower border of the rib.

70

What is in the retroperitoneal space?

Abdominal aorta
IVC
Pancreas (except tail)
Kidneys
Adrenal glands
Part 2,3,4 for duodenum
Ascending colon
Descending colon
Rectum
Ureters
Bladder
Vertebral column
Pelvic muscles

71

What is the tx for warfarin skin necrosis?

Fresh frozen plasma to replenish protein C

72

What is the tx for vWF disease and mild hemophilia A?

Desmopressin

73

How do you treat overdoses of MTX, aspirin and phenobarbital?

With bicarbonate because they are weak acids that will be trapped in the urine by a basic environment because they donate a hydrogen and become charged

74

How do you treat an OD of amphetamines.?

With ammonium chloride
Amphetamines are weak bases and will therefore accept a hydrogen and become charged and trapped

75

What is the tx for intussception?

Barium enema

76

What is the tx for esophageal varices?

Somatostatin - constricts the splanchnics and diverts blood to the systemic system

77

What is menotropin and hCG given for?

To stimulate FSH and LH for infertility

78

What is the tx for lichen sclerosis?

Corticosteroids

79

Erythematous, pruritic ulcerated skin of vulva
Pas positive, keratin positive

Extramammary Paget's

80

Malignant sheets of uniform cells - large vesicular cells with clear cytoplasm
Fleshy
Radiosensitive
Ckit tyrosine kinase

Dysgerminoma
Associated with Turner's

81

What is the first line treatment for Tourette's?

Haloperidol
Atypical antipsychotics

82

What is the first line tx for myoclonic seizures?

Valproate acid

83

What is the first line tx for partial seizures?

Carbamazepine

84

What are the first line tx for tonic-clonic seizures?

Phenytoin
Carbamazepine
Valproate

85

What is the second line tx for absence seizure?

Valproate

86

What is the perioperative tx to prevent venous thrombosis in a hospitalized patient?

Heparin

87

What is used to tx heparin induced thrombocytopenia?

Lepirudin
Argatroban

88

What is the first line tx for PSVT?

Adenosine - may cause flushing, burning in chest, SOB, AV block

89

What is the tx of choice for an ectopic pregnancy?

MTX - will get a build up of DHF and folic acid in the cells

90

What is leucovorin?

Folinic acid = pre-reduced form of folic acid that can be used for purine and thymidylate synthesis without being reduced by DHF reductase

91

What is the tx for bacteriodes?

Piperacillin + tazobactam

92

What is the tx for Conn's syndrome?

An aldosterone antagonist : spironolactone, eplerenone,

93

What is the tx for theophylline OD.

Beta blockers for the tachyarrythmia
BZDs and barbs for the seizures

94

What is the tx for Graves opthalmopathy?

Corticosteroids - anti inflammatory effects

95

What is the tx for atypical depression?

MAOi - phenelzine

96

What is the tx for nephrotoxicity from acyclovir?

IV hydration

97

What is the tx for TCA cardio toxicity?

Sodium bicarbonate

98

What is the treatment for norepinephrine extravasation?

Phentolamine

99

What is the tx for C.difficile?

Clindamycin

100

What is the tx for isolate systolic HTN?

Thiazides diuretics and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in non-diabetic patients
ACE-I and ARBs used in diabetics

101

What is the first line medication for essential HTN.

Hydrochlorothiazide

102

Why does infusion of epi cause a decrease in insulin release?

Because it's hitting both alpha and beta
Alpha - inhibits insulin release
Beta stimulates insulin release

103

What is the tx for arsenic poisoning?

Dimercaprol - displaces arsenic ions from the sulfhydryl groups

104

What is the tx for acute lead and mercury poisoning?

CaNaEDTA - forms mono,di, trivalent ions

105

What is the tx for RCC?

Aldesleukin - IL2