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When was the Potsdam conference



Who attended the Potsdam conference

Truman, Stalin and Churchill


Why was the tension high at the conference?

-Truman had delayed the meeting until the new atomic bomb had been tested
- Stalin knew nothing of the bomb so was increasingly suspicious of the allies
- Germany their common enemy had been defeated so they were no longer united


What agreements were made at the Potsdam conference?

- set up a council of foreign ministers to organise the re building of Europe
- ban the nazi party and try all surging nazis as war criminals in a special court
- reduce the size of Germany
-divide Germany into 4 zones to be governed by the USA, the USSR, France and GB with the hope of uniting them under one government as soon as possible
- divided Berlin into 4 zones too, despite being deep in the USSR's zone
- give the USSR a quarter of the industrial equipment from the other three zones because it was the least industrially developed


What were the disagreements?

-Reparations (the ussr wanted to impose heavy reparations to cripple Germany but America wanted Germany to be rebuilt)
-The atomic bomb (Truman believed that America had the ultimateweapon and tried to take control of the meeting. Stalin refused to be pushed around, the American's bomb made Stalin more determined to create the 'buffer zone'


When was the Truman doctrine written?



What did the Truman doctrine state?

- the world had a choice between communist tyranny and democratic freedom
- America had a responsibility to fight for liberty wherever it was threatened
- America would send troops and economic resources to help governments that were threatened by by communists
- communism should not be allowed to grow and gain territory


What was the significance of the Truman doctrine?

-It was important because it suggested that America rather than the UN had a responsibility to protect the world
- it was also significant because it divided the world according to ideology: capitalism and communism were in opposition
- it was the unofficial end to the grand alliance and the beginning of the COLD WAR


When was Marshall plan/aid introduced?

1947 in association with the Truman doctrine


What was Marshall plan/aid?

It committed $13 billion of American money to rebuild the shattered economies of Europe. By encouraging prosperity it would weaken the attraction of communism ( if you have more to lose your are less likely to want to share it out)


What was the initial reaction to Marshall plan?

- many European leaders were keen to receive Marshall plan
- the ussr representatives walked out of the meeting claiming that America was trying to split Europe into 'two camps'


When was nato formed?



What was nato?

An alliance between the USA and many other countries in Western Europe. NATO members agreed that if any countries came under attack, all members of NATO would their defence.


Why was NATO significant?

It was a military alliance with the specific aim of defending the west against communism


When was the Warsaw Pact formed?



What was the Warsaw Pact?

It was the ussr's response to NATO with Eastern Europe countries including East German, Poland and Czechoslovakia


Who was Matyas Rakosi?

The dictator of Hungary from 1949-1956


How did Khrushchev respond to Imre Nagy as the leader of Hungary?

Khrushchev believed that the reforms were unacceptable and that if Hungary was allowed to leave the Warsaw Pact,other Eastern European countries would follow.
On November 4th 1956 200,00 soviet troops and 1000 tanks fought in Budapest against Nagy's supporters. about 2,500 people were killed and Nagy was hung


What was Hungary like under Stalinist influence?

- Hungarian land was redistributed to other Eastern Europe countries
- Hungarian coal, oil and wheat were shipped to Russia
-non communist parties were abolished
- Russian officials controlled the government, the police and the army
-cominform began a reign of terror, executing popular leaders and their supporters
-Matyas Rakosi was appointed as Hungary's dictator


Why did Khrushchev start the division of Berlin?

- the East German government was extremely unpopular and therefore many East Germans fled to west Germany
- east Germany was loosing a lot of people including many skilled workers
- Berlin was the centre of the refugee problem because it was easy to get from east Berlin to west and from there to west Germany.


How did Khrushchev go about stopping the refugee problem?

In November 1958, Khrushchev declared the whole city of Berlin officially belonged to east Germany. He also issued an ultimatum, giving US troops 6 months to withdraw. The plan was to prevent East Germans fleeing to the west and to humiliate the USA


What was Kennedy's response to the reinstatement of the six month ultimatum?

Kennedy refused to back down. He declared declared that he would not remove American troops from Berlin. He also started preparing America for war, committing the US government than additional $3.2 billion of defence spending.
He also made a decision to spend an extra $207 million on building nuclear fallout shelters


Why did Khrushchev build the wall?

- he knew he could not win a nuclear war. In 1961, America had almost 20 times more nuclear weapons than the USSR
-Khrushchev could not force the Americans to leave West Berlin but he still had to solve the refugee. His solution was to build a wall separating east and West Berlin, making it impossible for East Germans to escape to the west


When was the Berlin Wall built?



Why did the tension relax?

On the 27th of October soviet tanks were deployed to further block the wall, causing an all day stand off with the US tanks. Finally after 18 hours the tanks began to pull back. The crisis had passed and Kennedy said it wasn't ideal but it as better than a war.


What was the Prague Spring?

The 'Prague Spring' is a phrase used to describe the liberal changes brought about by Dubcek( the leader of Czechoslovakia) from 1968


What were the reforms of the Prague Spring?

- a relaxation of press censorship
- the legalisation of political opposition groups
- official government tolerance of political criticism
- more power given to the regional governments
- more power given to the Czech parliament
- 'market socialism', the reintroduction of capitalists elements into the Czech economy


What were people's reactions to the reforms of the Prague Spring?

-the reforms were welcomed enthusiastically by students, intellectuals, workers and the younger members of the Czech communist party.
-older Czech communists were shocked and their horror was shared by the soviet premier, Brezhnev and his allies across Eastern Europe


What was the Brezhnev doctrine?

A statement that said the USSR had the right to invade any country in Eastern Europe whose actions appeared to threaten the security of the whole eastern bloc.


What was the cater doctrine?

This was president Jimmy Carter's response to the soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Appalled by the aggression he argued the USA would not allow the USSR to gain control in the oil rich Middle East.