What is another name for Trueperella?
What are the main characteristics of Trueperella
Pleomorphic Facultative anaerobe non spore forming non capsulated
Is Trueperella gram positive or gram negative?
Gram positive pleomorphic organisms (you will see coccoid-rods￼) ￼
Trueperella is catalase positive or negative?
Trueperella is capnophilic. What does this mean?
Loves CO2- grow it in an atmosphere of 5-10% CO2
Is Trueperella acid fast positive or acid fast negative?
Acid fast negative- DOES NOT CONTAIN MYCOLIC ACID
What is a good way to distinguish between Trueperella and Corynebacterium?
Corynebacterium is catalase positive while Trueperella is catalase negative
What is the most important bacteria of Trueperella?
What kind of infection does Trueperella pyogenes cause?
Pus related infections- suppurative infections in ruminant and swine
What hosts are Trueperella Pyogenes normally found?
Ruminants and Swine
Trueperella Pyogenes is part of the normal flora present in the mucous membranes of Ruminants and Swine (T/F)
True- most infections are endogenous
What part of the body is Trueperella Pyogenes normally found?
What type of mastitis does Trueperella pyogenes cause and how is it spread from cow to cow?
Summer mastitis- Spread is aided by flies that are attracted to traumatized teats
What are the virulence factors in Trueperella?
Adhesions, Cell wall, and exotoxins
What kind of cell wall does Trueperella have?
Peptidoglycan rich- gram positive. Pro inflammatory
What is the main exotoxin of Trueperella and what does it do?
Pyolysin O- produces damage to the host cell membrane by creating pores
What type of bacteria does Trueperella live synergistically wiith?
Obligate anaerobes- Trueperella will consume all the oxygen, which will allow the obligate anaerobes to proliferate
What exotoxins does Trueperella contain and what do they do?
Pyolysin O- damage host cell wall. Neuraminadase- removes Sialic acid and exposes receptors. Proteases and DNAses
What make up the adhesions of Trueperella?
Collagen and Fibronectin- binding proteins
Pathogenesis of Trueperella
1. physical or microbial damage to the skin 2. Bind collagen and Fibronectin with extracellular matrix 3. Produce neuraminidases, proteases, and DNAses which will add in exposure to receptors for the bacteria to bind to. Then the different exotoxins will allow destruction of different cells. Aids in the spread of the organism
What kind of pathology does Trueperella cause?
suppurative processes usually complicated by other potential pathogens.
Does Trueperella causes abscesses and mastitis?
Yes- abscesses, empyemas or pyogranulomas
What can Trueperella cause in cattle?
abortion and mastitis (summer mastitis- communicable disease))
What kind of abscesses does Trueperella pyogenes cause in cattle?
What kind of mastitis is caused in cattle?
Is there a vaccine available for Trueperella?
No- vaccine potential exists with toxoids
What kind of hemolysis occurs on the Blood agar plate?
Beta hemolysis due to the Pyolysin O
Does Trueperella ferment lactose?
What is the best treatment?
Drainage of abscesses and antimicrobial therapy (test for antimicrobial susceptibility)
What actinobaculum infects the preucial mucosa of boars?
Actinobaculum is mainly present in what species?
Actinobaculum suis is sexually transmitted to who?
Sows- causes cystitis and pyelonephritis
What happens in sows that get Actinobaculum suis?
Pain when the animal tries to urinate and death is a consequence of renal failure
What is the main virulence factor of Actinobaculum?
Urease- destroys urea and coverts it to ammonia
Actinobaculum is a good differential diagnosis for what in pigs?
urinary tract infections
Is actinobaculum aerobic or anaerobic?