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Flashcards in Tumour pathology 3 Deck (24)
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1

What are the local effects malignant tumours

Pressure
Obstruction
Tissue destruction
Bleeding
Pain

2

What are the two forms of bleeding caused by malignant tumours

anaemia - slow blood loss
haemorrhage - major blood loss

3

What is an indirect effect of anaemia malignant tumours

tiredness

4

How is pain produced in tumours

Pressure on nerves
Bone pain from pathological fractures

5

Pain on nerves is due to perineural infiltration what is this?

cancer spreading to the space surrounding a nerve

6

What are the systemic effects of malignant tumours

secretion of hormones
weight loss

7

What is paraneoplastic syndrome

Not direct effect from cancer cells but from humoral factors from tumour cells or by an immune response against the tumour

8

What is abnormal hormone production in tumours

Produced by tumour from an organ that does not normally produce hormone

9

What is normal hormone production in tumours

produced by tumours of endocrine organ

10

What is dysplasia

early stage in the development of cance (pre-malignant)

11

Where is dysplasia identified

in the epithelium

12

What are the features of dysplasia

Increased nuclear size
Increased mitotic activity
Abnormal mitoses
No invasion

13

Why is it important to detect cancer at early stage

Reduce/prevent morbidity/mortality

14

What does screening do

Try and detect dysplastic cells

15

Carcino - embtyonic antigen biomarker indicates what

colorectal cancer

16

Kras biomarker indicates what cancer

colorectal cancer

17

EGFR is a clinical biomarker for what cancer

Lung cancer

18

Her2 is a clinical biomarker for what cancer

breast and gastric

19

B-raf is a clinical biomarker for what cancer

Melanoma

20

For invasion and metastasis what two natural processes need to be altered

Matrix degradation by proteolytic enzymes
and loss of cell cell/ cell ECM adhesion

21

Give an example of the presence of onco foetal proteins in an adult and what it can indicate

alpha feto protein AFP - testicular teratomas
or heptacellular caricinomas

22

What are the spread of metastasis sites for Breast, prostate and colorectal

Breats - bone
Prostate - bone
Colorectal - liver

23

uncommon metastasis sites

Kidney, spleen, heart, skeletal muscle

24

Common metastasis sites

Lungs, liver, bone, brain, adrenal

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