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Flashcards in Tutorial week 11 Deck (115):

an ________________ involves using a laboratory animal in a specific testing situation to determine the behavioural changes induced by a drug, a genetic manipulation or some manipulation of the brain.

animal model


the utility of a behaviour test can be considered in terms of its _______________

predictive validity


a good behavioural test is one that can reliably predict useful outcomes in __________



___________ issues are important; the less invasive and harmful the test for the animal, the better it is



_____________________ currently spend $30 billion per year on R&D

Pharmaceutical companies


the biggest area of research is _________________

CNS medications


there are currently 10,000 knockout mice and many thousands more types with random mutations.

functional genomics


animal models are very widely used in _____________ research

behavioural neuroscience


assessing acute and long-term effects of drugs, particularly drug abuse, on behaviour is important in __________________



how did the overall behaviour of rat given cannabis (THC) differ from the rat given placebo

THC - not moving; anxious
placebo - energetic


does the hot plate cause tissue damage to the rat? why?

No, the hot plate will only damage the tissue of the rats if they were to be placed in the hot plate for more than 86 seconds. temperature was set up to not exceed 86 seconds.


name some drugs that produce catalepsy in rats

THC, morphine, sedatives, benzodiazepine, and anti-psychotic drugs


what does an anxiolytic drug typically do to behaviour on the elevated plus maze

rats with placebo - they go to closed space
rats with THC - anxiety depression; they go to opened space


why must testing high doses of alcohol or benzodiazephine on the plus maze be problematic

it has sedative effects
feeling less anxious


what is the brand name for chlorodiazepoxide



describe the effects of high dose of amphetamine

stereotype behaviour


what kind of drug can be given to block stereotype induced by amphetamine

dopamine antagonist


what was the difference between pure THC and THC cannabidol on the reporter?

Pure THC- found in cannabis; psychoactive; paranoid; depressed
THC and cannabidol - she couldn't stop laughing; euphoric


what might be the effect of smoking marijuana that's been breed to contain high THC levels?

family history of risk factors - increase in THC will lead to depression
individual variability/differences


compare the reporter's response to THC to that of the rat earlier. what does this tell us about the utility of using a rat model for exploring the neurobiology of drugs on people?

confirmation that these drugs affects rats.
emotional effects that are applicable to humans.


___________ allows analgesuc properties of drugs to be assessed

the hot plate test


rats are placed on a hot plate at _____

50 degrees Celsius


the hot plate test is important when investigating new _____________

analgesic (pain relieving) grugs


____________ allows assessment of catalepsy

the bar test


a drug that increase response latency in this test has ___________ properties and may well impair _________ in human

cataleptogenic; motor function


____________________ is a common test for anxiety. it's not thought to examine a rat's fear of height, but rather it exploits the rat's natural fear of open spaces, and its preference for maintaining vibrissal contact with its environment.

elevated plus maze


normally, a rat in EPM will spend about ______ of its time in the enclosed arms



___________________ is repetitive, stereotyped, and seemingly purposely behaviour that is induced by high dose repeated doses of stimulant drugs.



stereotype is associated with a hyperdopaminergic state in the dorsal (where/spatial processing) and ventral (what/obj. processing) stratium and is often caused by ________________________

behavioural and neurochemical sensitization


All the tissues and organs in your body are constructed of ________



our brain and spinal cord contain about __________________

100 billion nerve cells, or neurons


____ transmit information, and in so doing they govern what your body does and how you feel. They are cells specialised in relaying information about your body to different parts of your body



Neurons have a special shape, consisting of three important parts:

- the cell body
- the axon
- the dendrites


This contains the cell parts that every cell needs to stay alive, such as the nucleus, where the DNA is found

Cell body


This long, cable-like tail on the neuron conducts an electric signal and transmits it towards the next cell.



This short protrusion from the cell body contains receptors to pick up signals transmitted by the axons of other neurons.



________ are chemical substances that are capable of transmitting signals. they are also are released by the axons and are picked up by adjacent neurons, which can relay the signal further.

neurotransmitters, or nerve transmitters


how does signalling process works?

Step 1
An electric signal runs down the axon until it reaches the tip, or axon terminal.

Step 2
There the signal causes previously formed membrane sacs, known as synaptic vesicles, to release neurotransmitters into the space between the axon and the dendrites of
the next cell.
This space is called the synapse,
or synaptic cleft.

Step 3
The transmitters move across to the dendrite of the next cell and bind to its receptors.

Step 4
This binding action generates an electric signal, relaying the information onwards through the cell.

Step 5
The transmitters then unbind from the receptors and re-enter the synaptic cleft. They are either broken down by the body or reabsorbed by the original axon. The breakdown of transmitters is performed chiefly by MAOs (monoamine oxidases), proteins that eat up the transmitters, as it were. The reabsorption, or 'reuptake', is mediated
by substances known as reuptake proteins.

The process can now begin anew
at step 1.


how does drugs work?

NT effects

Drugs work by influencing the actions of
one or more types of neurotransmitters.
That may happen in any of five ways:

1. The release of transmitters is intensified or diminished.

2. The breakdown by MAOs is interfered with.

3. The return to the axon, mediated by reuptake proteins, is interfered with.

4. The transmitters are mimicked.

5. The production of new transmitter molecules is inhibited.


Types of neurotransmitters

Substance P


Influences your mood, learning abilities and memory. A deficiency can cause depression. This is also involved in sleep-wake rhythm, appetite and the regulation of body temperature.



Stimulates the reward centre in your brain, causing you to experience pleasure and feel happy and content. Dopamine is also found in the areas of the brain involved with thought processes and memory, and it plays a role in bodily movements.



Activates your body: Your heart beats faster and your bronchial tubes expand
to take in more oxygen for your muscles. You become more alert and self-confident.



Has a calming, pain-reducing effect, because it inhibits processes that trigger other neurotransmitters.



Carries pain stimuli to your brain via the

Substance P


Stimulate your brain’s reward centre and ease pain.



Is involved in memory function,
coordination and equilibrium.



If a person takes drugs, these are carried to the brain by the _____



The effects of drugs depend on:

- the neurotransmitters that they
- the areas in the brain where those
transmitters are located
- the functions that those brain areas

note: Most drugs influence not just one,
but several neurotransmitters.


One key brain area is the ___________.
__________ is the most important
neurotransmitter for this area. The reward centre arouses feelings of pleasure when you eat, drink or have sex. It rewards that behaviour with positive feelings that make you want to
repeat the behaviour again and again.

reward centre


_______ involves craving, increasing tolerance for a drug and withdrawal symptoms.



If your body is constantly receiving drugs, that can inhibit the release of ____________. It can also reduce the number of _________. You then need to take more drugs to achieve the original effect.

If you stop taking a drug, and your body abruptly does not get the drugs it is accustomed to, your neurons do not immediately revert back to normal. The nerve receptors are now too few,
the release of neurotransmitters is too low, or the MAOs have to work too hard. Your body has not yet adapted to the absence of drugs.
This precipitates __________ symptoms.

nerve receptors


name two neurotransmitter systems that MDMA acts on



what are the positive and negative effects of ecstacy (MMDA)

Feelings of eufhoria and binding with others but also overheating and dehydration.

side note:
desired effect: eufhoria
overheating: cause your body to overheat
memory: memory
depression: A shortage of serotonin can
precipitate depression
sleep walk rhythm: also induces the release of adrenaline, another neurotransmitter that keeps you awake

regular use of ecstasy can cause brain damage. Nerve cell axons can be destroyed. How these become damaged, and what
consequences that can have, is now the focus of extensive research.


in which two ways does MDNA interact with seratonin?

Ecstasy blocks the return of serotonin to the axon. Ecstasy binds to the reuptake proteins itself, preventing the serotonin from entering.

More serotonin is released than usual. That is because ecstasy alters the shape of the reuptake proteins, causing them to change direction, as it were. Instead of guiding serotonin from
the synapse back into the axon terminal, they send it from the axon terminal to the synapse.

Both processes result in excess accumulation of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, causing more signals than usual to be transmitted.


how might MDMA participate in the depression in the heavy or chronic users?

Heavy ecstasy use can deplete the supply of serotonin in your brain. That can lead to depression. Because the reuptake of serotonin is partially blocked, large amounts of it are broken down by MAOs. If this parallel process of degradation and insufficient reproduction goes on for long (e.g. if you take several pills or ones with strong MDMA concentrations), your bodys supply of serotonin can become exhausted. A shortage of serotonin can
precipitate depression.


two different theories to explain the brain damage from regular use of MDMA

1. Harmful substances.
Ecstasy is broken down in the body. Part of that process occurs in the brain.
Some of the by-products of this breakdown process may be damaging to the axons, thus disabling the neurons.

2. Penetration by other neurotransmitters.
MDMA lowers the serotonin concentration in the brain. If no serotonin is present, the reuptake proteins have nothing to absorb. These
little pumps stay empty, or they may even inadvertently take up other transmitters, especially dopamine, into the serotonin neurons. Dopamine and its breakdown products then damage the axons of those cells.



Although ecstasy is not addictive, that does not mean it is a safe drug. You can generally assume that if you change the chemical workings of your brain, that will always have its consequences. Positive effects can always be accompanied by negative ones.


name two neurotransmitter systems that amphetamine (speed) affect

dopamine and adrenaline


name 3 mechanism through which it affects these neurotransmitters

Speed (amphetamine) arrives in the brain via the blood. It penetrates into dopamine or adrenaline neurons with the aid of reuptake proteins.

The dopamine or adrenaline would normally be guided back into the axon by the reuptake proteins. Amphetamine
blocks this process.

The dopamine or adrenaline would normally be broken down by MAOs. Amphetamine also blocks this process.

Since cocaine does not have this effect, amphetamine works longer than cocaine.


what physiological effects does amphetamines produce?

The heightened activity of the adrenaline and dopamine neurons generates a euphoric, energetic feeling. Dopamine stimulates the brains reward
centre, resulting in euphoria.

Adrenaline makes you feel energetic. It stimulates the part of your nervous system that propels your body into an immediate active state and prepares it for great physical efforts. Your heartbeat, blood pressure and body temperature all increase. Bronchial tubes expand, and muscles tense due to the increased oxygen supply. The pupils of your eyes become enlarged.

overheating: Adrenaline induces a higher body temperature
High blood pressure: can make your blood pressure soar to dangerous levels
Teeth grinding: you grind and damage your teeth
Depression:can trigger feelings of depression
Dependency: your brains reward centre can make you dependent on the drug. Tolerance to speed can also develop.
Psychoses: too much speed can also lead to psychotic episodes, hallucinations and extreme paranoia. Here, too, the disrupted dopamine transmission is to blame.
Damage: nerve damage
can result from the long-term use of


amphetamine conclusion

Speed intensifies the release of dopamine and adrenaline while blocking their reuptake and breakdown.
Higher dopamine levels elicit pleasant feelings. Adrenaline activates your body.

The excessive release of dopamine has many detrimental effects on your brain.
Long-term use of speed often results in
depression and in damage to your
dopamine neurons.


___________ has an energising effect on both body and mind.

Cocaine (coke)

Cocaine can also stimulate the reward centre and arouse pleasurable feelings.


Describe 2 ways in which cocaine increases dopamine release

The cocaine molecules bind to the reuptake proteins that normally remove
the dopamine from the synaptic cleft. This blocks access for the dopamine. The dopamine drifts about in the cleft and collides with the receptors.

Cocaine induces the neurotransmitter vesicles to release extra dopamine.

The release of dopamine also continues, so that increasing amounts of it accumulate in the synaptic cleft.


An intensified release of the neurotransmitter dopamine forms the basis of the effects produced by _______ . Dopamine helps to relay information between neurons, or nerve cells.



Effects of cocaine

Desired effects
Dopamine stimulates the brain’s reward centre. You feel euphoric and self-confident.

Stimulation of the reward centre can lead to dependency. You want to experience that euphoric feeling again and again.

Repeated use of cocaine is also thought to reduce your bodys sensitivity to dopamine.
The dopamine receptors are gradually destroyed by cocaine use. You need to take more and more cocaine to achieve the same effect.

The exact consequences of the long-term use of cocaine are still unclear. Depression often occurs in long-time users who stop taking cocaine.
Their neurons have become numb to dopamine, as it were, and can no longer respond to the normal amounts of it.

Dopamine can also overstimulate the fright centre in the brain, inducing paranoia.
The fright centre is a survival mechanism that warns us of danger. Overstimulation can trigger excessive anxiety.
A mere shadow or loud voice can come
across as a terrible threat.



Cocaine is a heavily addictive drug. Its stimulating and addictive effects result from a disruption of the brains reward system. Tolerance to cocaine increases over time.

Cocaine users then need more of the drug to achieve the same effects. Regular use of cocaine also heightens the risk of side-effects. You become more irritable, agitated or even paranoid.


Marijuana (grass) and hashish (hash) are products of the hemp plant, __________

Cannabis sativa


The active substance in cannabis is _______________. This induces the bodily effects you feel from taking cannabis.

THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)


what are the effects of cannabis intoxication?

In normal doses, cannabis makes you feel high – relaxed, contented and slightly intoxicated. Some of its side-effects are coordination problems, hunger and impairment of memory function.

The effects arise because THC disrupts the action of the neurotransmitter anandamide, found in different parts of the brain.


what NT does THC mimic

THC behaves like anandamide. It mimics the neurotransmitter, binding to the receptors that are actually designed for anandamide. It takes over
the work of the anandamide, as it were.

When the THC binds to a receptor, the message is relayed.

The neurotransmitter anandamide is stored in vesicles at the tip of an axon.

When an electric signal arrives there, the vesicles fuse to the wall of the neuron. That releases anandamide into
the space (synapse) between two neurons.

Anandamide now moves across the synapse to the adjacent neuron. The dendrites of that neuron contain receptors to which anandamide can bind.

When the anandamide binds to one of
these receptors, the message is
relayed further.

Once the message has been transmitted, anandamide unbinds from its receptor and flows back to its original neuron.
Reuptake proteins help it to enter.

The cannabis condition

Cannabis (that is, its active ingredient THC) alters these normal conditions.

THC behaves like anandamide. It mimics the neurotransmitter, binding to the receptors that are actually designed for anandamide. It takes over
the work of the anandamide, as it were.

When the THC binds to a receptor, the message is relayed.

The anandamide is recycled, as it were.

Once the message is transmitted, the THC unbinds from the receptor and is broken down by the body.


THC indirectly stimulates the release of Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. how does it do this?

So THC indirectly stimulates dopamine release. The effect that dopamine has on your brains reward centre can make you dependent on cannabis. You want to experience that pleasant feeling again and again.

Although less dopamine is released than with strongly addictive substances
like speed or cocaine, 5-10 percent of cannabis users still grow dependent
on the drug.

Desired effects
Cannabis induces a pleasant, relaxed feeling and a sense of well-being. It achieves this by indirectly stimulating the brains reward centre. The reward centre is stimulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Cannabis increases the release of dopamine in an indirect way. On its own, THC cannot cause a dopamine neuron to release more dopamine. A third substance also plays a role, the neurotransmitter GABA.

GABA normally inhibits an excessive release of dopamine. As can be seen no dopamine is released.

GABA normally inhibits an excessive release of dopamine.

But THC now interferes with the release of GABA. This allows more dopamine to be activated.
Negative times negative is positive.

The higher amounts of dopamine stimulate the reward centre.

THC also affects your coordination and equilibrium. This is normally regulated by the cerebellum.


What percentage of cannabis users become dependent? Pharmacologically, what why may it be less addictive than other drug abuse?

Although less dopamine is released than with strongly addictive substances
like speed or cocaine, 5-10 percent of cannabis users still grow dependent
on the drug.


The _____________ is vital to short-term memory. When THC binds to the cannabinoid receptors there, that interferes with memory function. You find it harder to store recent events in your memory.



The hypothalamus is known as the ____________. By binding to the cannabinoid receptors there, THC can induce hunger pangs.

brains hunger centre


THC also affects your coordination and equilibrium. This is normally regulated by the ________.



The________ are involved in involuntary muscle movements. These are movements that you make without having to think.

Here, too, cannabis can give problems with physical coordination.

basal ganglia


when considering the effects of a drug, it is important to consider the brain regions with a high density of the relevant receptors. Name 4 regions of the brain have a high density of cannabinoid receptors, and what role do these regions have in mediating the effects of cannabis,

The hippocampus is vital to short-term memory. When THC binds to the cannabinoid receptors there, that interferes with memory function. You find it harder to store recent events in your memory.

The hypothalamus is known as the brains hunger centre. By binding to the cannabinoid receptors there, THC can induce hunger pangs.

THC also affects your coordination and equilibrium. This is normally regulated by the cerebellum.

The basal ganglia are involved in involuntary muscle movements. These are movements that you make without having to think.



Cannabis has several different effects on your brain. These are generated by its active agent THC.

THC mimics the neurotransmitter anandamide, and it also indirectly increases the release of dopamine. That gives you a pleasant feeling.

The risk of addiction to cannabis is lower than that of drugs like cocaine or speed.

THC also binds at other points in your brain. That can adversely affect your short-term memory and your coordination. Destruction of brain cells has not been proven in the case of cannabis.


___________ are powerful drugs used as narcotics. This includes compounds like opium, heroin, morphine and codeine.



List three effects of opiates.

The most significant effects of taking heroin are pleasure, pain relief and the suppression of breathing.


Name an endogenous opiates



In terms of evolution, _______ are important for survival. If you need to flee after sustaining an injury, this can ease the pain.



The effects of heroin derive from the fact that morphine mimics _________, the natural neurotransmitters.



explain how opiates indirectly stimulate dopamine release

The dopamine neuron also contains opiate receptors.
Endorphins bind not only to the GABA neuron but also to the dopamine neuron. In this case, the binding action inhibits the release of dopamine.

Endorphins can therefore both stimulate and inhibit. Under normal conditions, they help to keep the system in balance.

Heroin is converted in the body into morphine.
Morphine mimics endorphins and binds tightly to the receptors of the GABA neuron. This inhibits the release of GABA.

As the supply of GABA diminishes, the dopamine neuron can release more dopamine. It stimulates the reward centre and you feel pleasure.


heroin also has _______________

pain-relieving effects.


The big difference between heroin and endorphins:

is that heroin works far better and longer than the endorphins.

Endorphins are produced by the body itself and are broken down very quickly.
That means there is little risk of addiction.


The most serious consequence of a heroin overdose is ___________. why?


That is because heroin strongly affects breathing rhythm.


Why can heroin overdose lead to suffocation

The neurons that regulate breathing contain opiate receptors.

After heroin has been converted to morphine in the body, the morphine can
bind to these receptors.

This binding action leads to a suppression of signal transmission to the breathing muscles.

Breathing becomes shallower.



The most significant effects of heroin are pleasure, pain relief and the suppression of breathing.
Heroin produces these effects by binding to special opiate receptors.

The consequences can be devastating.
You become addicted after continuous stimulation of the brains reward centre.

In extreme cases, you can even be
killed by the suppression of your
breathing reflex.


Alcohol does not lead to an increase of dopamine throughout the brain; it only causes an increase in dopamine in the area of the ____________ (Boileau et al 2003). This reward pathway is
comprised primarily of the nucleus accumbens, the VTA (ventral tegmental area), and a part
of the prefrontal cortex

reward pathway


with what 5 NT systems does alcohol interact?

Alcohol gives you a calm and relaxed feeling, but it also interferes with your memory.

It affects your motor functions, breathing, reaction speeds, body temperature regulation and appetite.

The reason why alcohol has those effects on your body is that it influences
several different neurotransmitter systems: dopamine, serotonin, endorphin, GABA and glutamate.

The dopamine neurotransmitter system
is stimulated by alcohol. A burst of dopamine flows to the brain's reward centre, making you feel pleasant and euphoric. You want to experience that feeling again and again, and this can lead to alcohol addiction.

If you drink alcohol regularly for a long time, your brain adapts to it. It becomes less sensitive to dopamine, and it also releases less dopamine itself. In the absence of alcohol, concentrations of dopamine in the brain
become too low, and that can make you feel depressed. You want to drink again to overcome this, and this, too, can result in alcohol addiction.

Alcohol also affects the brain's serotonin neurotransmitter system. It is
stimulated by alcohol, and that makes you feel euphoric and closer to other people. Because alcohol gives you such
pleasant feelings, you want to drink it more often.

Endorphins, or 'natural opiates', are inhibitory neurotransmitters secreted by your own body. The endorphin system can slow or stop your breathing.

Breathing rhythm is regulated by the medulla oblongata. This brain area contains many endorphin (or opiate) receptors that control your breathing muscles. When endorphins bind to these receptors, that reduces the activity of the neurons in the medulla oblongata, leading to slower breathing.
Because alcohol stimulates the release
of endorphins, these neurons become inhibited, and this can slow down your breathing or even stop it altogether.

Alcohol activates the endorphin system,
releasing endorphins into the brain. This can ease pain and give you a euphoric feeling when you drink alcohol
(see also Heroin).
This makes you want to drink again and
again, and you become addicted to alcohol.


alcohol acts upon GABA. What is the effect of increased GABA release?

Alcohol also causes GABA to bind to the receptor more frequently, thus conveying a larger number of messages
and increasing GABA's inhibitory action even further.


how does alcohol interact with GABA receptor

Alcohol calms your nerves and gives you a relaxed feeling. That is because GABA has an inhibitory effect on other neurons, and thus causes certain parts of the brain to work more slowly.


the cerebellum has a high density of GABA receptors. How does alcohol affect this region.

The cerebellum, the brain area that controls the fine motor functions, also contains many GABA receptors. Alcohol reduces your fine motor control, because your cerebellum slows down.


__________ is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It spurs other neurons into action.

Receptors for glutamate are found in all
parts of the brain, and are therefore involved in many of its vital processes.



____________ means that a greater dose is required to achieve the same effect that smaller dose previously could. What is the neural mechanism that underpins this?


In your brain, the structure of GABA receptors gradually changes, making them less sensitive to alcohol. Alcohol now has more difficulty binding to the receptors. As a result, the receptors transmit fewer inhibitory signals, and you have to drink more and more alcohol to get back that calm, relaxed feeling.


what are the symptoms of alcohol wothdrawal?

If you suddenly stop drinking alcohol, you can experience withdrawal symptoms, such as insomnia, jitteriness, sweating, anxiety and depression.

This is because:

- The structure of the GABA receptors
has changed, making the calming
action of GABA less effective than
previously, and

- GABA now only binds very briefly in
the absence of alcohol. Fewer
inhibitory messages are relayed,
and the nervous system becomes

If you abruptly stop drinking, the alcohol suddenly no longer blocks the receptors. Since additional receptors have been created and the receptors are oversensitised, large amounts of glutamate now bind to them. The neurons become overstimulated. This can give rise to withdrawal symptoms such as insomnia and, in the worst case, epilepsy.



Alcohol enhances the inhibitory action of the neurotransmitter GABA. This gives you a calm, relaxed feeling.

Alcohol inhibits the excitatory action of the neurotransmitter glutamate. This interferes with your memory functions and other bodily processes.

Alcohol also influences several other neurotransmitter systems in the brain. The result is a pleasant, euphoric feeling. But too much alcohol can make you completely stop breathing.

If you drink alcohol regularly, you need more and more of it to get the effects you want. Your body builds up a tolerance to alcohol. If you stop drinking, you may experience withdrawal symptoms. Drinking large amounts of alcohol regularly can lead to
depression and dementia.


What are the 4 contexts that use animal models

Pharmaceutical companies
Functional genomics
Basic research


Where are NT stored?

synaptic vesicles


What does re-uptake mean

Transporter proteins ferry the neurotransmitter back from the synapse into the terminal, for
repackaging into vesicles


What are the 2 purposes of re-uptake

(1) To
terminate the action of the neurotransmitter at its respective receptor and
(2) to recycle
neurotransmitter (the need to synthesise more neurotransmitter is lessened).


What does all NT systems have?

transporter proteins (e.g. SERT = serotonin transporter, DAT = dopamine transporter).


what does drugs that act on
transporter proteins include

cocaine, amphetamine and MDMA


Drugs acting via NTs released from vesicles mechanism include

amphetamine and cocaine.


what are the common antidepressants that also inhibit SERT.

fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft) also


what is the important enzyme of drug abuse

monoamine oxidase (MAO)


What are the 2 forms that MAO is present in



what is MAO-A and what is MAO-B

MAO-A, which preferentially metabolises serotonin
MAO-B, which preferentially
metabolises dopamine


What will happen if MAO is inhibited?

inhibiting MAO, the affected neurotransmitter will remain in the synapse
for longer, thereby prolonging its action at its receptors.


What drugs inhibit MAO?

amphetamine and MDMA
The antidepressant moclobemide is also a MAO inhibitor.


a drug may bind directly at a receptor by
__________ the neurotransmitter.



Mimicking the NT can either evoke a functional change to the neuron, called ________
or prevent this change from occurring, called _________. Drugs that bind to a receptor will usually have a structure very similar to the neurotransmitter that binds the same receptor

1. agonist
2. antagonist


What are the examples of agonists

THC, nicotine and heroin