Type II Immunopathology Flashcards Preview

Blood and Lymph Unit 2 > Type II Immunopathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Type II Immunopathology Deck (33):
1

Describe Type I immunopathology.

Symptoms or pathology due to IgE and Th2-mediated events

2

Describe Type II immunopathology

Pathology due to IgG, IgM, or IgA antibody causing harm to self. Also includes Type V stimulatory antibodies.

3

Describe Type III immunopathology

Formation of immune complexes which are trapped in basement membranes of blood vessels and activate complement leading to vasculitic inflammation

4

Describe Type IV immunopathology

Pathologic outcomes of normal or abnormalT cell responses including both helper and cytotoxic cells

5

What is chronic frustrated immune response?

ADAPTIVE immune response to try to get rid of antigens that never can.

6

Give examples of things that can cause chronic frustrated immune responses.

Normal gut flora (Crohn's Disease)
Skin flora (Psoriasis)
Chemicals (Chronic Beryllium disease)
Gluten (Celiac Disease)

7

What are the three mechanisms of tissue damage caused by antibodies?

1. Neutralization
2. Complement-mediated damage
3. "Stimulatory hypersensitivity"

8

What is one example of antibody mediated immunopathology that causes neutralization?

Neutralizing anti-interferon (IFN)-gamma autoantibodies found in adults of Southeast Asian decent.

Associated with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria

9

What are three ways in which complement can mediate damage?

1. Create pores in cells
2. Phagocytosis (opsonizing)
3. Phagocytes' lysosomal enzymes and ROS

10

Give an example of stimulatory hypersensitivity

Graves disease

11

Describe Graves disease

Long-acting thyroid stimulator that binds to thyroid stimulating hormone receptor and stimulates the thyroid.

Hyperthyroidism

12

What are the symptoms of myasthenia gravis?

Progressive muscle weakness

13

What is the target for autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis?

AChR the alpha subunit

14

What happens after the autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis bind to AChR?

Complement and neutrophil mediated destruction

15

How is Aire implicated in myasthenia gravis?

-Mutated CHRNA1 gene of AChR is mutated
-Aire transcription factor cannot bind too gene
-Protein is not expressed in patients' thymus
-No clonal deletion of Th cell against AChR
-Tfh can activate B cell>>Plasma cell antibodies agains AChR

16

What are the treatments of myasthenia gravis?

Thymectomy
Immunosuppression
Neostigmine-related drugs (increase effectiveness of ACh)
IVIg

17

What do the autoantibodies in Goodpasture syndrome bind to?

Collagen IV found in the basement membrane of the lungs and kidneys

18

What Goodpasture patients usually get pneumonitis with pulmonary hemorrhage?

Smokers

19

Does Goodpasture syndrome usually cause a linear or lumpy-bumpy immunoflorescent stain??

Linear. Antibodies directly against BM

20

What is Dressler Syndrome?

Autoantibodies that react to the heart after a heart attack or heart surgery.

21

What are the symptoms of Dressler syndrome?

Cardiac pain
Fever
Malaise
Pericardial effusion

22

What bacteria causes rheumatic heart disease?

Streptococcus

23

What is the self antigen in rheumatic heart disease?

Laminin found on the endocardium and valves

24

What cells mediate the destruction of the cardiac cells?

Neutrophils

25

What is the pathophysiology of autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP)?

Autoantibodies bind to platelets and are sequestered by the spleen.

26

What are some of the common causes of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)?

Viral infections
Autoimmune syndrome
Cancer
Drugs

27

Name some drugs that can cause AIHA.

Penicillin
Methyldopa
Chlorpromazine
Quinidine

28

What autoimmune disorder can cause AIHA?

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)
-binding at 15 degrees Celcius

29

Hyperthyroidism caused by stiumulatory autoimmunity to the TSH receptor on thyroid cells causes what disorder?

Graves Syndrome

30

Hypothyroidism resulting from autoantibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase resulting in inflammatory and destruction causes what disorder?

Hashimoto disease

31

Hashimoto disease is found in what patient population?

Females for the most part (5/6)

32

Name some mechanisms of loss of tolerance.

1. Hybrid (foreign + self) antigen formulation
2. Emergence of forbidden clone
--Ex: Myasthenia gravis
3. Cross-reaction
--Rheumatic fever
4. Passive antibody
--Mismatch transfusion
5. Innocent bystander
--Drug bound to RBC
6. Sequestered antigen
--Mumps >>>Infertility
7. Failure of regulatory mechanisms
--T cells are not balanced

33

What is the difference between direct and indirect test for immunofluorescence?

Direct- Sample of the patients tissue with autoantibodies is incubated with goat or rabbit antibody to human IgG tagged with fluorescein

Indirect- Nomal tissue sample (not patient derived) is incubated with patients serum. Then incubated with labeled anti-IgG