Types of substance - topic 1 (pg 87-111) paper 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Types of substance - topic 1 (pg 87-111) paper 1 & 2 Deck (32):
1

element

made from atoms
same number of protons and neutrons in the nuleus

2

atom

smallest particle of an element that has chemical properties

3

molecule

consists of two or more atoms chemically joined together

4

most gases at room temperature exist as

molecules with two atoms

5

compound

consists of two or more different elements chemically joined together

6

ion

chemically charged particle formed after the loss or gain of electrons, metals and hydrogen lose, non-metals gain, positive or negative charge

7

balanced equations must have

equal amounts of atoms in reactants and product (either side)

8

solid symbols

show the physical state of each substance
solid (s)
liquid (l)
gas (g)
aqueous solution (aq) - dissolved in water

9

how to show ion charge

using the superscript + or -

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oppositely charged ions in a solution may

join to form an insoluble solid (precipitate)

11

in an ionic equation

substance shown by their formula
numbers of atoms is equal on both sidetotal charge is equal on both sides

12

hazard

damage or harm someone or something
adverse health effects

13

risk

chance that someone or something will be harmed if exposed to a hazard

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precaution

something to reduce the risk of harm from a solid

15

an atom consists of a

nucleus containing protons and neutrons which is surrounded by electrons in shells

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atoms diameters, masses and electrical charges are expressed

relative values (standard form)

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mass number

total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (big number)

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atomic number

the total number of protons in the nucleus (small number)

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isotopes

atoms of an element with:
same number of protons
different number of neutrons
-same atomic number, different mass number
same chemical properties due to same number of electrons

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Relative atomic mass

mean mass of the atoms of an element, relative to 1/12th the mass of a (^)12C atom

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the modern periodic table is from whos version, how

Mendeleev in 1869
in order of relative atomic masses

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group 6 elements

don't react with water
all react with oxygen (except oxygen itself)
form compounds with hydrogen in the formula H2X
have 6 electrons in the outer shell

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group 7 elements

react with water
don't react with oxygen
form compounds with hydrogen in the formula HX
7 electrons in the outer shell

24

the modern periodic tables elements are arranged in order of

atomic number

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in the periodic table...

- horizontal rows are periods
- vertical rows are groups
- metals are on the left hand side and middle
- non-metals are on the right

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electronic configuration

arrangement of electrons in shells
shell 1 - 2 electrons max.
shell 2 - 8 electrons max.
shell 3 - 8 electrons max.

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period number equates to

number of occupied shells

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group number equates to

number of electrons in the outer shell (excluding group 0, which have full outer shells)

29

a cation is

- a positively charged ion
- formed after the loss of one or more electrons
- group 1 atoms lose 1 electron to form a - charge
- group 2 atoms lose 2 electrons to form a 2+ charge

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an anion is

- a negatively charged ion
- formed after the gain of one or more electrons
- group 7 atoms gain 1 electron to form a + charge
- group 6 atoms gain 2 electrons to form a 2- charge

31

positively charged ions formed from hydrogen or metal atoms take the

name of the element

32

negatively charged ions formed from single non - metal atoms take the

name of the element but end in -ide