Flashcards in Typical Cervical Vertebra and Atypical C1 Deck (64):
What is the name of the lamina-pedicle junction of typical cervical vertebrae?
the articular pillar
What nerve indents the articular pillar of typical cervical vertebrae?
the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve
What is the classic angulation of typical cervical articular facets?
40 to 45 degrees from the coronal plane
Recent work suggests what angulation for typical cervical articular facets?
55 to 60 degrees
What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facets?
backward, upward, medial (BUM)
What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facets?
forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)
What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?
the longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidis and rotators
The greatest range of flexion - extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?
What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?
lateral bending and axial rotation
Ranges of coupled motion among typical cervical vertebrae will be similar for what cervical vertebral couples?
the C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5 vertebral couples
Ranges of coupled motion around the typical cervical vertebrae will being to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?
the C5/C6 vertebral couple
What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?
they are bifid
What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?
They are non-bifid
What muscles may attach to the typical cervical spinous process?
the spinalis cervicis, semifinals cervicis, semipinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators, and interspinalis
What ligaments will attach to the typical cervical spinous process?
the interspinous ligament and ligaments nuchae
What will form the anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?
the lateral groove and vertebral body of the segment above, the uncinate process and vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral disc and the posterior longitudinal ligament
what will for the posterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?
the inferior articular process (post-zygapophysis), the superior articular process (pre-zygapophysis), the capsular ligament and the ligament flavum
what will form the superior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen
the inferior vertebral notch/incisure
what will form the inferior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?
the superior vertebral notch/incisure
What is the unique anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen for the C4 spinal nerve?
there lateral groove of C3 and uncinate process of C4 forming the joint of Luschka
What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?
What features are lacking at C1?
vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process and the intervertebral disc
What osseous modification is observed to the front of the anterior arch of C1?
the anterior tubercle
What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?
What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1
the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanta-occipital and anterior atlanta-axial ligaments
What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?
the fovea dentis
What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?
they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces
What is the orientation of the superior articular face of C1?
backward, upward, medial (BUM)
What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?
synovial (diarthorosis) ellipsoidal joint
What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?
asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened
What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?
backward, medial, downward (BMD)
What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medal aspect of the lateral mass of C1?
tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament
What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?
levator scapula, splenius cervicis, and fetus capitis anterior
What part of C1 represents the spinous process?
posterior tubercle of the posterior arch
What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?
males: about 50mm; females: about 37mm
What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1
rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae
What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?
groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim
What are the attachment sites of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament
it si attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas, to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas and to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone
What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?
about age 7 years old
Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?
an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus
What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?
What names are give to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?
arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal
Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?
all ethnic populations studied thus far
what is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?
What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?
what is the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus versus an incomplete one?
the incidence of a complete is about 15% and the incomplete may be as high as 41%
What is observed on the undersurface of the posterior arch of C1?
"inferior vertebral notch" and an attachment site for the posterior atlanto-axial ligament
What is the location of the "zygapophysis" relative to the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial intervertebral foramina?
it forms part of the anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen in both cases
what is the general appearance of the transverse process of C1?
what are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?
costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process
what osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?
anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar
What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?
rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior aan intertransversarii muscles
What sub occipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?
rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior
what are the connections between suboccipitial muscles and the spinal dura called?
what are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?
the lateral mass and the transverse process of atlas
what forms of the lateral bridges are observed in the population?
incomplete lateral bridges and complete lateral bridges
what opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?
the retrotransverse foramen
what are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?
the vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve and veins communication with the venous sinuses of the neck
what is observed in the transverse foramen of C1?
vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers
What is the gender variation for measurement of the transverse diameter of C1?
males: 78mm; females: 72mm
Is there a gender variation for the distance form the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin?
not a significant difference
Is there a gender variation for the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin?
a little over 30mm for both male and females
How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?