Typical Cervical Vertebra and Atypical C1 Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Exam 2 > Typical Cervical Vertebra and Atypical C1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Typical Cervical Vertebra and Atypical C1 Deck (64):
1

What is the name of the lamina-pedicle junction of typical cervical vertebrae?

the articular pillar

2

What nerve indents the articular pillar of typical cervical vertebrae?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

3

What is the classic angulation of typical cervical articular facets?

40 to 45 degrees from the coronal plane

4

Recent work suggests what angulation for typical cervical articular facets?

55 to 60 degrees

5

What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facets?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

6

What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facets?

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)

7

What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?

the longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidis and rotators

8

The greatest range of flexion - extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?

typically C5/C6

9

What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?

lateral bending and axial rotation

10

Ranges of coupled motion among typical cervical vertebrae will be similar for what cervical vertebral couples?

the C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5 vertebral couples

11

Ranges of coupled motion around the typical cervical vertebrae will being to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?

the C5/C6 vertebral couple

12

What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?

they are bifid

13

What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?

They are non-bifid

14

What muscles may attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

the spinalis cervicis, semifinals cervicis, semipinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotators, and interspinalis

15

What ligaments will attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

the interspinous ligament and ligaments nuchae

16

What will form the anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

the lateral groove and vertebral body of the segment above, the uncinate process and vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral disc and the posterior longitudinal ligament

17

what will for the posterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

the inferior articular process (post-zygapophysis), the superior articular process (pre-zygapophysis), the capsular ligament and the ligament flavum

18

what will form the superior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen

the inferior vertebral notch/incisure

19

what will form the inferior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

the superior vertebral notch/incisure

20

What is the unique anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen for the C4 spinal nerve?

there lateral groove of C3 and uncinate process of C4 forming the joint of Luschka

21

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

atlas

22

What features are lacking at C1?

vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process and the intervertebral disc

23

What osseous modification is observed to the front of the anterior arch of C1?

the anterior tubercle

24

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

longus colli

25

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1

the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanta-occipital and anterior atlanta-axial ligaments

26

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

the fovea dentis

27

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

28

What is the orientation of the superior articular face of C1?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

29

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?

synovial (diarthorosis) ellipsoidal joint

30

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

31

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

backward, medial, downward (BMD)

32

What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medal aspect of the lateral mass of C1?

tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

33

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

levator scapula, splenius cervicis, and fetus capitis anterior

34

What part of C1 represents the spinous process?

posterior tubercle of the posterior arch

35

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

males: about 50mm; females: about 37mm

36

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

37

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?

groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

38

What are the attachment sites of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

it si attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas, to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas and to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone

39

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

about age 7 years old

40

Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?

an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

41

What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

42

What names are give to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

43

Ponticulus posticus has observed in what ethnic populations?

all ethnic populations studied thus far

44

what is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?

1-41%

45

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?

female

46

what is the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus versus an incomplete one?

the incidence of a complete is about 15% and the incomplete may be as high as 41%

47

What is observed on the undersurface of the posterior arch of C1?

"inferior vertebral notch" and an attachment site for the posterior atlanto-axial ligament

48

What is the location of the "zygapophysis" relative to the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial intervertebral foramina?

it forms part of the anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen in both cases

49

what is the general appearance of the transverse process of C1?

triangular

50

what are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

51

what osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?

anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

52

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior aan intertransversarii muscles

53

What sub occipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

54

what are the connections between suboccipitial muscles and the spinal dura called?

myodural bridges

55

what are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

the lateral mass and the transverse process of atlas

56

what forms of the lateral bridges are observed in the population?

incomplete lateral bridges and complete lateral bridges

57

what opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?

the retrotransverse foramen

58

what are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve and veins communication with the venous sinuses of the neck

59

what is observed in the transverse foramen of C1?

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

60

What is the gender variation for measurement of the transverse diameter of C1?

males: 78mm; females: 72mm

61

Is there a gender variation for the distance form the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin?

not a significant difference

62

Is there a gender variation for the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin?

a little over 30mm for both male and females

63

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

five

64

What synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets, and the fovea dentis