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Flashcards in U3 AOS1 Deck (56):
1

What is a motor skill

Special form of skill that require movement of the body limbs to achieve a goal

2

Categories of movement precision

Gross and fine motor skills

3

Fine Motor Skills

Recruitment of smaller muscles
Movement associated with precision

4

Gross Motor Skills

Recruitment of larger muscle groups
Accuracy is important but less emphasis on precision
Force and power

5

Categories of movement type

Discrete
Serial
Continuous motor skills

6

Discrete motor skills

Have a definitive beginning and end
Brief in duration
(Kicking)

7

Serial motor skills

Combination of several discrete movements
Executed in a specific order to perform a more complex skill
(Gymnastics floor routine)

8

Continuous motor skill

Have no definitive beginning or end
Start and finish can be assigned but actual motor skill is continuous
(Running)

9

Categories of predictability of environment

Open and closed motor skills

10

Closed motor skill

Predictable self paced environment
External factors such as weather don't exist to impact skill execution
Internally paced and athlete tries to replicate exact movement each time
(Indoor diving routine)

11

Open motor skill

Performed in an unpredictable externally paced environment
Conditions are constantly changing
Performer has to adapt skills according to changes
(Passing soccer ball in game)

12

Fundamental motor skills

Foundations skills that provide the basis for the development of sport specific skills
Children who do not master FMS less likely to participate

13

Classification of fundamental motor skills

Stability skills (balance and control of body)
Locomotive skills (enable us to move through space)
Manipulative Skills (controlling objects)

14

Three stages of learning

Cognitive
Associative
Autonomous

15

Cognitive

Understanding and developing the basic movement pattern
-High attention dedicated to understanding/performing skill
-performance is inconsistent with many large errors
-movement is stiff and unrelaxed
-poor error detection and correction ability
-Performance will improve rapidly

16

Associative

Refining movement patterns and associating environmental cue
-less attention dedicated to performing skill
-learner can pay more attention to environmental cues
-performance more consistent with less errors /minor errors
-improved error detection and correction ability
-performance will improve slowly

17

Autonomous

Almost automatic performance of movement pattern
-little attention required for successful skill execution
-attention directed towards higher order processes (tactics/strategy)
-consistent high level performance
-well developed error detection and correction ability
-small performance improvements

18

Coaching at cognitive

Close environment
Regular feedback which is simple and concise and not overloading
Use demonstrations
Part practice for complex skills
Strategies to keep motivation high

19

Coaching at associative

Provide regular practice opportunities
Increase variability or practice throughly slowly opening environment
Provide regular feedback- prevent bad habits

20

Coaching at Autonomous Stage

More precise feedback
Use random practice
Challenge the learner with problem based learning

21

Amount of practice

The more time an individual practices a new movement skill, the greater chance they have of mastering the skill

22

Law of diminishing returns

Performers in early stage of learning will improve rapidly in response to practice
As learner becomes more competent, their rate of improvement in response to practice decreases

23

Categories of practice distribution

Massed and distributed practice

24

Massed practice

Less frequent but longer sessions
Continuous practice of discrete skills
Little or no rest between tasks or trials

25

Distributed practice

More frequent and shorter sessions
Practice in intervals with recovery periods
Equal or more rest between tasks or trials
Continuous skills

26

Categories of practice variability

Blocked and random practice

27

Blocked

Practicing the same skill repetitively in the same practice conditions for a set period of time
Each skill practiced in a block and isolated from other skills
Effective in early stages of learning

28

Random practice

Varied sequencing of different skills
Learner rarely practices the same task on two consecutive attempts in the same training session
More applicable to game situations

29

Intrinsic feedback

Information that performers receive from their senses such as visual, auditory, proprioception and touch

30

Augmented feedback

Comes from sources external to the performer
Can greatly enhance a learners own internal feedback through providing a reference point

31

Knowledge of results

Information on the outcome of the task

32

Knowledge of performance

Information about the process of performing the task

33

Concurrent v Terminal feedback

During performance v after performance

34

Frequency of feedback

Regular to facilitate learning
More in early stages of learning and less in latter stages
Don't overload in early stages
Too much in latter stages doesn't allow learner to develop intrinsic feedback

35

Barriers

Poor FMS=reduce performance, enjoyment and confidence
Unlikely to participate without competence in FMS
Lack of participation is associated with sedentary lifestyle

36

Enabler

Competent FMS= increase performance, confidence, enjoyment
The more enjoyment the more likely to participate and develop skills
FMS competency positively impacts cardio respiratory fitness with inverse relationship to weight

37

Four principles of qualitative movement analysis

Preparation
Observation
Evaluation
Error Correction

38

Preparation

Knowledge of the skill
Identify critical variables
How observation will take place

39

Observation

Skill is recorded/measured to gather information
Correct view point (side/front on)
Number of observations
Game or practice

40

Evaluation

Measure critical variables
Prioritise weaknesses

41

Validity

Ability of the observation method to measure what it is intended to

42

Reliability

Ability of observation method to reproduce identical or similar results when using the same observation technique, equipment, conditions and environment

43

Intra rater reliability

Consistency of ratings given by one observer

44

Inter rater reliability

Consistency of ratings given by multiple observers

45

Error Correction/Intervention

Select appropriate intervention
Provide feedback
Reinforce strengths and correct errors

46

Constraints - Influences on movement

Task constraints: limitations of a skill/drill/sport (court dimensions)

Environment constraints: weather, opposition, teammates

Individual constraints: limitations of the performer (body shape)

47

Direct coaching approach

- characteristics: skill and drill, highly structured and repetitive, coach is central and uses demonstrations, explicit learning
- adv: time efficient, maximises practice time, effective in early stages, learning immediately evident, emphasis on correct technique
- dis: boring and repetitive, risk of inability to apply skills to game, doesn't develop decision making, high risk of choking

48

Constraints based coaching

- characteristics: Learner centred, Learning is implicit, Small sided modified games, Manipulation of constraints to achieve a desired learning outcome, High variability
- adv: practice mimics game, skills applicable to games, develop tactics, motivates participants to solve own problems
- dis: not suited to larger groups, may take longer to achieve results

49

Cultural factors

Education
Religion
Values
Climate
Geographic location

50

Social factors

Time
Available resources
Access to equipment
Access to coach
Self motivation

51

Why qualitative over quantitative

It is cheaper

52

How can a qualitative analysis become more objective

Use of measurement devices

53

Geographic location in cognitive stage

Influences people's access to various physics, activities and variety of options they can try

54

Geographic location in associative

Emphasis on particular physical activities in different areas produces varying elite athletes

55

Geographic location in autonomous stage

Climate conditions and being able to access competitions at high enough standards

56

Use of Part/whole practice

- breaking a skill into segments can be beneficial for beginners, preventing them from being overwhelmed and enabling quick success
- must take into account task complexity and organisation