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Flashcards in UHB Yellow Booklet notes Deck (77):

What is growth

An increase in mass and height


What is development

A gradual change in abilities, emotions and skills as people get older


What factors can affect human growth and development

- Gender
- income
- Pollution
- Ethnicity and Religion
- Diet
- Genetic Inheritance
- Housing conditions
- Friendships
- Life experiences (birth, marriage, death and divorce)
- Material possessions
- Employment
- Family relationships
- Amount/type of physical activity
- Educational experiences
- Access to health and welfare services
- Experience of illness or disease


What are the life stages

0-3 yrs - Infancy

4-10 yrs - Childhood

11-18yrs - Adolescence

19-65 - Adulthood

65+ - Later adulthood


Development (Nature)

- All of the characteristics of a person are inherited through parents
- Genetic influences on our development
- Hormones influence physical growth and development in adolescence


What is Maturation

The natural process in which human body naturally grows and acquires capacity to attain a variety of skills and abilities through life span.


Development (Nurture)

- Characteristics are decided by the environment around us
- Behaviour is learned, we are not born with it


What are the three main genetic factors

- Genes
- Chromosomes


Genetic inheritance

- Having a mixture of genes from our parents
- Genes react with chemicals in our body to determine what we look like and how out body works
- Some behavioural and physical disorders can be inherited


What is the definition of Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder affecting individuals ability to communicate and socially interact.The disorder is commonly described as the Autistic spectrum, as a mild version of Autism was identified as Asperger Syndrome,


What are the characteristical symptoms of Autism

Communication - Speech problems
- Have difficulty understanding language
- Difficult to read body language and take most things literally

Social interaction - Find it
hard to understand other peoples emotions and often cannot express their own.
- Find it difficult to interact with others
- Not unemotional but have problems expressing emotions

Social imagination - Find it difficult to imagine what is going to happen and cannot anticipate danger
- Lack a theory of mind
- Cannot empathise with others


Affects of autism on development

- Variations in the effects on development (Mainly SOCIAL and INTELLECTUAL development)

Social - Difficulty in interacting in social environments, making it hard to make friends
- Obsessive traits often misunderstood bu others
- Lack of empathy

Intellectual - Some are highly intelligent and are often gifted, whereas some are less intelligent
- More autistic have an lower average IQ
- Poor empathy skills


What is the definition of Tourettes

Tourettes is in inherited, neurological disorder characteristed by multiple involuntary movements and uncontrollable vocalisations called tics that come and go over years, in a few cases, such tics can include inappropriate words and phrases


What are the symptoms of tourettes

- Facial tics e.g. eye blinking, twitching or grimaces
- Other motor tics may appear such as head jerking, neck stretching, foot stamping or body twisting and bending
- Strange and unacceptable sounds, words or phrases
- May continuously clear throat, cough, sniff, grunt, help, bark of shout
- People with TS may shout obscentieid or constantly repeat words


What are the physical effects of Tourettes

- Tics cause uncontrollable movement and can sometimes be painful
- Could also have OCD and ADHD
- Premonitory sesations before tics
- May be on medication


What are the intellectual effects of Tourettes

- Can cause learning difficulties
- Uncontrollable words/sounds


What are the emotional effects of Tourettes

- Tics may become worse at times of stress. anxiety and tiredness
- Flying into sudden rages
- May be singled out due to bullying
- May need behavioural therapy


What are the four socio-economic factors

- Income
- Housing
- Access of services
- Family



Income is the money that a person gets each week to live on. Income comes from
- Wages that a person is paid for working
- Profits from a business if a person is self employed
- Benefits that are paid by the government to help people
- Money from invested wealth as interest on bank accounts
- Money from selling a property that a person owns


Low income

- In the UK roughly one in 6 people live on less that 60% average income (low income)
- People may not have enough money to cover costs of basic living
- May result in low self-esteem and negative self concept


What are the key groups of people who may be on a low income

- Lone parent families
- Unemployed people
- Elderly people
- Disabled people
- Single earners
- Unskilled couples


What are the implications of poor housing

- Contributes towards a wide range of hazards to physical health and safety as well as negative affect on development
- Windows kept shut may result in poor ventilation
- Damp patches on the wall from gutters outside - risk of infection from fungal spores
- Poor hygiene increase of infection and disease
- Stress may lead to poor mental health
- Increased accident risk


Accessing services on a low income

- People on low incomes may not be able to access services as well as wealthier people
- Wealthier, employed people seem to take more notice of health education and have a healthier lifestyle


How can family have an affect on our development

Family groups can guide and teach children and thehy can provide a source of social and emotional support for adults and older family members as well as children

- Emotional support
- Setting for learning social expectations
- Safe environment to support children
- Financial help
- Belonging to a family group may help people to develop positive self esteem
- Care for older relatives


What are the three environmental factors affecting development

- Water
- Air
- Noise Pollution


Water pollution

- Clean water is essential for healthy development
- Often stems from discharge of untreated waste and dumping of industiral pollutants
- Can cause diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid and hepititis


Air pollution

- Astmha is attributed to air pollution
- Bronchitis and Pnemonia are common
- Affects physical development and also social/emotional since such conditions can affect a persons confience and self-esteem


Noise pollution

- Can only affect our ears but our whole nervous sytem too
- Psychical development and social development can be affected


What is self concept

The combination of self-esteem, which is how highly we think about ourselves and self-image, which we gain from other peoples reactions to us


What are the factors which affect our self concept

- Age
- Gender
- Culture
- Sexual oritentation
- Appearance
- Life experiences
- Emotional maturity
- Education


Vygotsky fact file

- Constructivist theorist
- Partly agreed with Piaget but disagreed with certain aspects
- He believed it is important that children get help and support from others in order to learn (Scaffolding)


Vygotsky - Zone of Proximal Development Theory

- He believed that children learn from others who are more knowledgeable and who support learning
- STARTING POINT - Child current ability on their own
- ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT - Where child gets help from others who are more knowledgeable
- BEYOND THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT - Where the child can not do any more despite support
- He emphasised certain aspects that will help with the solution
- Control the level of frustration


Pros and Cons of Vygotsky's theory

- Bridges the gap between social and cognitive apporaches
- Helps to understand how to actively help learners reach their potential.... more educational application
- Little scientific evidence
- Too much emphasis on social interaction


Applying theories to education - VYGOTSKY

- Learning as collaboration - Learning together rather than individuals... promoting critical thinking and interest
- Zone of proximal development - More knowledgeable e.g. teacher or friend
- Scaffolding - Begin with full support then gradually remove the support as abilities and confidence increase


Operant Conditioning - SKINNER - What is operant conditioning

The consequences of a given response. An organism acts, and the action has a consequence: The consequences determine whether or not that response is more or less likely to occur again


SKINNER - What is the definition of Punishment

An unpleasant stimulus being given following unacceptable behaviour or behaviour that is not required


SKINNER - What is the definition of reinforcement

Making more likely


SKINNER - What is negative reinforcement

A required behaviour learned by the release of escape of from an unpleasant stimulus


SKINNER - What is the definition of shaping

The use of a series of gradual steps towards acquiring the wanted behaviour


SKINNER - What is positive reinforcement

A required behaviour followed by something the individual finds rewarding


SKINNER - What is a reinforcer

Anything or something that raises the probability that the behaviour will occur again


How did SKINNER research operant conitioning

- Found a pigeon that was extremely malnourished and put him in a box
- Box featured a pink disc that the pigeon would have to peck in order to get food
- Pigeon naturally pecks around to investigate where he is
- Pigeon accidentally pecks the pink disc and food is released
- Pigeon then learns that that is what is has to do in order to get the reward (therefore his behaviour is shaped positively)
- Food then begins getting released less often (negative reinforcement)
- Pigeon then begins pecking more often, therefore his behaviour has changed


SKINNER - Application

Aversion therapy - Pairing alcohol with an emetic (a substance designed to cause vomiting)
Understanding phobias - How they are learned
Systematic desensitisation - Present the conditioned stimulus repeatedly until it no longer produces the response


Evauluation of SKINNER - Operant conditioning

- Can explain a wide range of behaviours
- Sufficient in changing behaviour e.g. addiction, phobias

- Does not take biological factors into account
- Most research has been carried out on animals - cannot apply to humans



- Developed by Bandura
- Suggested that agression is learned from the environment (rather than instinctual) through reinforcement and the process of modelling
- Learning can occur without a change in behaviour


BANDURA - What does Modelling mean

Observation of other people which may lead to imitation if the behaviour to be imitated leads to desirable consequences


What does Social Learning Theory mean

Social learning theory suggests that much of the behaviour is learned from the environment through reinforcement and the process of modelling


What is the meaning of imitation

Behaving in the same way as something or someone else


BANDURA - What happened in his Bobo doll study

- Studied on small children aged 3-5
- Put an adult in the room with them and a bunch of toys including a Bobo doll
- Adult begins beating, shouting and screaming at the Bobo doll infront of the children for 10mins
- Adult leaves the room and the children are alone with the toys
- The children begin imitating what they have seen from the adult


BANDURA - What are the 4 criteria that Bandura believed needed to be met for social learning to occur

- Pay attention to the role model
- Retention of the observed behaviour
- Reproduction of observed behaviour
- Motivation to imitate the observed behaviour


BANDURA - What makes an effective role model

- Same gender
- Same age
- Higher status
- Admired/respected (a role model)


BANDURA - Evaluation of Bandura's theory

- Successfully demonstrated that learning can take place through observation
- Some of the research on the relationship between watching violence in the media and real life agression seems to support Bandura

- Bandura does not distinguish between real agression and play fighting
- Children who had not played with the Bobo Doll before were five times as likely to imitate the aggressive behaviour than those who were familiar with it; he claims that the novelty value of the doll makes it more likely that children will imitate the behaviour
- Bandura has ignored other factors, such as emotions and personality


FREUD - What are the three named of Freuds structure of a person

- Id
- Ego
- Superego


FREUD - What are the five Psychosexual stages

- Oral
- Anal
- Phalic
- Latency
- Genital


FREUD - What did Freud argue about personality

- Freud suggested that rather than having one integrated whole mind, our psyche is seperated into 3 parts, which often work against eachother (ID, EGO & SUPEREGO)


FREUD - The Id

- The primitive biological part of the mind
- Present in new born infant and consists of basic biological impulses or drives such as hunger, thirst etc
- Freud argues these drives motivate us to behave in certain ways and humans are motivated to satisfy urges and wishes
- Urges and wishes put is in a state of arousal when they are satisfied arousal is reduced
- part of the UNCONSCIOUS MIND


FREUD - The Ego

- Develops as the child grows
- Aims to gratify the Ids impulses in line with what is realistically possible by considering the environment that it is in
- Has the job of defending the unconscious mind against displeasure


FREUD - The Superego

- Develops last
- Judges whether actions are right or wrong
- Effectively a conscience (little voice)
- Internal version of the values and morals in society
- An internalised representation of the same sex parent
- Can cause anxiety if it is violated (guilt)



- 0-18 Months
- Focus of Libido in the mouth
- The child is being breast fed and weaned
- They are passive, receptive and dependant
- Focus on exploring with mouth - sucking things



- 1-3 years
- Focus of libido in the mouth
- Potty training at this stage
- Ego develops as parents impose restrictions
- It is the first time the child experiences control (explusion/retention of feaces)



- 3-6 years
- Focus on genitals
- Curiosity and examination
- Superego develops through resolution of Oedipus and Electra complex
- Identification with same sex parent leas to formation of gener identity



- Self pleasure dominant
- Libido focused on other things such as work etc



- Puberty begins
- Opposite sex partner relieving sexual needs, lbido is most dominant


FREUD factfile

- The key Psychodynamic theorist
- Only focuses on how early experiences influences adult life and ignores how events which take place can shape us as individuals


ERIKSON - Factfile

- Developed his theory from Freud but disagreed with some parts
- Suggested that there were 8 periods of developmental crisis an individual would pass through in life
- Whether an individual would success or fall in these stages would influence how their sense of self and personality would develop


Eriksons theory -



Evauluation of the Psychodynamic Perspective

- Can provide explanations for complex behaviours
- Led to the development of treatments

- Difficult to test/measure
- Over emphasises sexual desires
- Freuds findings were carried out mainly in Austria


MASLOW - What do Humanist Psychologists do

- Start from the assumption that every person has their own unique way of preventing and understanding the world and that the things they do only make sense in this light


MASLOW - Factfile

- Theory more complex than rogers
- Maslow acknowledged that people have a variety of needs that differ in immediacy and which need satisfying at different times
- Arranged these needs in a hierarchy


MASLOW - Hierarchy of needs

- People have a variety of needs that offer in immediacy which need satisfied at different times
- The basic needs, towards the bottom take precedence over those higher up
- Those who meet all the needs meet the self-actualisation stage
- Believed that prolonged periods where a person where a particular need was not met could result in fixation


MASLOW - Stage 1 - Physiological Needs

- Biological requirements for human survival e.g. air, food, drink. shelter. clothing, warmth. sex sleep
- If needs are not satisfied the human body cannot function optimally
- Maslow considered physiological needs the most important as all other needs become secondary until these needs are met


MASLOW - Stage 2 - Safety needs

- protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.


MASLOW - Stage 3 - Love and Belonging needs

- The need for interpersonal relationships motivates behaviour
- e.g. friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love .


MASLOW - Stage 4 - Esteem needs

- Maslow classified into two categories - 1 for esteem for oneself and 2 for the desire for reputation and respect from others.
- Indicated the need for respect or reputation is most important for children and adolescents and precedes real self-esteem or dignity


MASLOW - Stage 5 - Self-Actualisation

- Realising personal potential, self fullfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. A desire to become everything one is capable of becoming


How could a childminder minimise the anxiety experienced by a child in their care

- Allow children to have comfort items e.g. blankets, teddys etc
- Acknowledge childs anxiety
- Provides positive experience
- Allows required time for handover/collection procedures
- Discuss situation with parents
- Try to find out why child is anxious
- Plan appropriate activities
- Reads stories relating to the way the child feels


MASLOW - Evaluation of Hierarchy of needs

- Focuses on the individual and on their needs and willpower
- Helps us to understand changes in the way humans process information at different stages in life
- Positive approach based on what humans CAN do, rather than what they can't
- Balanced view of nature/nurture

- Ignores the importance of social or cultural factors
- Cannot explain more complex interactions or thought processes
- Unrealistic for everyone to achieve self-actualisation