Uit 2b Reform Movement, Westward Expansion & Revolutions Flashcards Preview

US History > Uit 2b Reform Movement, Westward Expansion & Revolutions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Uit 2b Reform Movement, Westward Expansion & Revolutions Deck (50):
1

Transcendentalism

philosophy popular in the 1840s; to rise above society an find yourself (Ralph Waldo Emerson)

2

Temperance Movement

limit alcohol; led by Lyman Beecher; women's crusade

3

Horace Mann

father of American education-discouraged corporal punishment-estb. teacher training programs

4

Utopian Communities

Shakers, Mennonites, wanted to create a perfect society, separate from political parties/formal society

5

Abolition

anti-slavery

6

American Colonial Society

encouraged freed slaves to move back to Africa to the colony of Liberia

7

Underground Railroad

secret paths and roads that led out of the slave states into free states

8

Nat Turner Rebellion

Virginia 1831-Turner leads rebellion of 70 slaves who killed 60 whites-Turner hanged

9

Seneca Falls Convention

Women's Rights Convention held in Seneca Falls NY

10

Declaration of Sentiments

"All men and women are created equal/women deserve the right to vote" Elizabeth Stanton wrote this

11

Dorothea Dix

leading activist for mentally ill and prisoners; Helped separate mentally ill from criminals-reformed prisons/asylums

12

Wrote Dec Of Senti-women's rights

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

13

Helped over 300 slaves to freedom, spy in civil war

Harriet Tubman

14

Sojourner Truth

escaped slave, owned by Dutch family; Isabella Baumfree-1850-The narrative of Sojourner Truth-travled telling the truth

15

Grimke Sisters

Angelina & Sarah, left slave owning family in South Carolina; converted to become Quakers, moved to Pennsylvania; leading abolitionists

16

Took place in upstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.

Seneca Falls Meeting

17

Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.

Horace Mann

18

Utopian societies

Experimental communities designed to be perfect societies.

19

Shakers

led by Mother Ann Lee; 1840s; one of the first religious communal movements; kept men and women separate; failed due to lack of recruits. No wonder.

20

Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

William Lloyd Garrison

21

American author and daughter of Lyman Beecher, she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Harriett Beecher Stowe

22

Second Great Awakening

Protestant revival movement. Protestants felt threatened by the Catholics. Prominent preachers emerged; appealed to women, slaves and poor

23

National Trades Union

Began to seek better wages, working conditions, and job security - resented bankers and owners. Workers were reluctant to join the highly controversial union.

24

known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States

Stephen Austin

25

Mexican President during the Texas Revolution, then general of the army who lost to general Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto

Antonio de Santa Anna

26

Congressman from Tennessee who traveled to Texas to help the Revolution, he is a hero of the Battle of Alamo. He was killed in the battle

Davie Crockett

27

Texas wanted to be able to have slaves and they wanted representatives in the Mexican government

Causes for Texas Revolution

28

1836 battle during the Texas Revolution that resulted in the massacre of about 200 Americans who were defending this fort (including frontiersman Davy Crockett); vengeful Americans rallied to the cry "Remember the ___" when they eventually defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto.

Battle of the Alamo

29

"Manifest Destiny"

The belief that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The phrase was coined by New York journalist John L. O'Sullivan.

30

to take or attach territory, especially territory conquered during a war.

to annex

31

Mexican American War

War with Mexico which began in 1846 when the U.S. annexed Texas and Mexico challenged the Border. Battles were fought in Texas, and Mexico was invaded from the Atlantic Ocean by General Winfield Scott. Scott attacked Mexico City and Chapultepec. The war ended with the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848.

32

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

a treaty that the US forced Mexico to sign in 1848, giving Mexico's northern lands to the US (NM,CO,AZ,UT,CA,NV)

33

a period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel

transportation revolution

34

Robert Fulton

tested a steamboat designed in France;Along with Robert R Livingston, put the first steamboats into service in 1807; introduced the steamboat industry to the U.S.

35

What forms of transportation were improved or invented at this time?

The steamboat and the locomotive.

36

What effect did the Transportation Revolution have on the United States?

Made travel faster, the country more confident, and reduced shipping time and costs.

37

What were the benefits of steamboat travel?

You can travel upriver and across the Atlantic Ocean.

38

How did railroads affect trade and business in the United States?

Economy grew and it became easier and faster to send goods to distant markets.

39

What physical obstacles did railroad construction in the United States face?

They faced rivers, rough terrain,and mountains.

40

What effects did the Transportation Revolution have on the U.S. economy?

Created a national economy, led to new industries, and the growth of other industries.

41

Where workers and machines came together in one place to produce a larger amount of goods

factories

42

Identical parts that can be used in place of one another; replacement parts
Ex: Mr. Potato head

Interchangeable parts (think Eli Whitney)

43

A long, slow, uneven process in which production shifted from simple hand tools to complex machines

Industrial Revolution; started in Britain

44

-an American inventor
-best known for inventing the COTTON GIN, which was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution & shaped the economy of the Antebellum South.

Eli Whitney
(1765-1825)

45

-known as he creator of the modern factory
-an inventor & founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company
-remembered for his invention of the MECHANICAL REAPER, a machine that could cut and gather crops quickly

Cyrus McCormick
(1808-1884)

46

Got an apprenticeship for Jedediah Strutt in England at the age of 15 in 1783 - memorized the parts to a spinning wheel- relocated to the U.S.

Samuel Slater

47

- founder of lowell mills
- controlled cotton by controlling imported cotton
-went to manchester factories, memorized cotton loom parts and made them in the US

Francis Cabot Lowell

48

A severe food shortage

famine

49

a person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants

nativist

50

Where immigrants settled

North East