Identify four intrinsic factors that can influence the risk of injury.
- Posture and Causes of Poor Posture
- Individual Variables
- Physical Preparation
What are the three psychological factors that can influence the risk of injury
- Arousal/anxiety levels
How can arousal levels increase the risk of injury?
Being overaroused- making a reckless challenge for the ball in netball
Being underaroused- not concentrating when batting in cricket and being hit with the ball
How can motivation affect the risk of injury?
Increase risk of injury- overtraining or wanting to train when injured could damage muscles & joints
Decrease risk of injury- greater effort put into training and rehabilitation so skill and fitness level develops. Therefore less likely to become injured
How can aggression affect the risk of injury?
Increase risk of injury- too aggressive and injure self or others e.g. two footed tackle in football
Decrease risk of injury- committed to sport so less likely to get hurt in contact e.g. putting head in correct position in a rugby tackle
Identify four causes of poor posture.
- Poor stance/gait
- Badly fitting clothing & footwear
- Poor sitting position (slouching)
- Lack of exercise
- Physical defects/previous injuries
Name four individual variables and describe how they can increase the risk of injury
Sleep- lack of sleep leads to fatigue so recover from injury slower and make poor decisions
Flexibility- if less flexible then increased risk of muscle tears
Previous injuries- site of injury is weaker so more likely to reinjure
Gender- women have less muscle mass than men- increased risk of muscle tears and ligament damage
Age- older people (65+) are more of risk of fractures as bones are more brittle
Nutrition- overweight: increased risk of heart attacks and diabetes
- malnourished: poor diet muscles don't repair properly more likely to suffer muscle tears
Name four areas of physical preparation and describe how they can increase the risk of injury.
Warm up- not warming up increases chance of muscle strains
Cool down- not cooling down means muscles will be more stiff and sore after training
Fitness levels- poor fitness levels will increase risk of injury e.g. poor strength increased risk of neck injuries in a rugby scrum
Muscle imbalances- increases risk of muscle strains e.g. footballers quadricep muscles stronger than hamstrings
Overuse injuries- training too hard and often can lead to overuse injuries (e.g. shin splints)
Unsafe Training Methods
Identify three injuries related to poor posture.
- Rounded Shoulder
- Pelvic Tilt
Identify 3 symptoms and two causes of scoliosis
- 'S' or 'C' shaped spine
- One shoulder higher than the other
- back pain
- leaning to one side
- muscle imbalance
-overcompensating due to previous injury
- one sided activities e.g. javelin, racket sports
Identify 3 symptoms and two causes of kyphosis
- rounded upper back
- upper back pain
- forward head position
- poor sitting postion/slouching
- previous injury to spine
Identify two symptoms and two causes of lordosis.
- excessive curve of lower back
- lower back pain
- muscle imbalances (tight hamstrings and tight hip flexors)