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Flashcards in Unit 0 & Unit 1 Deck (61):
1

Toxin in food includes

trace metals;
POPs
pesticides
vet drug residue
naturally occurring toxins

2

what is POP

persistent organic pollutants

3

Mycotoxin is a example of

naturally occurring toxins

4

what toxin is present in Mac and Cheese, what does it do?

phthalates;
disrupt male hormones, is linked to genital birth defect and learning and behaviour problems

5

what are four types of food safety hazards?

1) Microbiological
2) Physical
3) chemical
4) Allergenic

6

what are three reaction of the body to food?

1) sensory
2) nutritional
3) adverse effects

7

what was tainted-baby-milk in china tainted with? what is it?

Melamine;
Used to make plastic, but can be used to boost apparent protein content;
caused kidney stones in child

8

HISTORY: what is sugar of lead?

lead acetate, happened in Rome (BC), causes brain damage

9

HISTORY: Arsenic in beer

arsenic(砒霜), dded to control beer, UK (1900)

10

HISTORY: Minamata disease

methyl-mercury in fish, minamata (1950)

11

HISTORY: poutry/ eggs in belgium

Dioxin, belgium (1999)

12

define "foodborne toxicants"

a chemical compound causing adverse effects to the consumer

13

what are some adverse effects

change in morphology, physiology, growth, development, reproduction

14

Name 3 major group of food toxicants

1) endogenous toxicants
2) naturally occurring toxicants
3) synthetic toxicants

15

What are some endogenous toxicants?

In Plants:
1) Cyanoglycosides
2) Glycoalkaloids (potato)
3) Lectins
Animals:
1) estrogen

16

what toxin can be found in sprouted potatoes?

glycoalkaloids

17

what toxin can be found in bitter apricot kernels?

cyanides(氯化物)

18

What are some groups of naturally occurring toxicants?

1) Mycotoxins曲霉素
2) Algal toxins
3) bacterial toxins
4) fish

19

give some examples of mycotoxins

1) Aflatoxin黄曲霉素
2) Ochratoxin
3) Patulin

20

give some examples of algal toxins

1) Saxitoxin
2) Domoic toxin
3) Brevetoxin

21

What is Saxitoxin?

paralytic shellfish poisoning (e.g. oyster in water high in algae with saxitoxin)

22

What is domoic acid?

amnesia, memory loss (e.g. sea loins)

23

give an example of bacterial toxins

Clostridium botulinum toxin (used for, botox)

24

give an example of toxins in fish

tetrodotoxins

25

What is Ciguatera disease? (toxin, symptom, history)

ciguatoxin, produced by algae and consumed by tropical fish;
vomit, nausea, tingling finger (not lethal);
1744, Captain Cook

26

What is the toxin found in puffer fish?

tetrodotoxin (fugu toxin)

27

Carrot juice with botulism toxin is an example of?

naturally occurring toxins

28

which term would you find lectins as leucoagglutinins? What kind of toxins is this?

raw kidney beans;
endogenous

29

what can you find in raw kidney beans?

lectins in terms of leucoagglutinins

30

Give some examples of synthetic toxicants

agriculture residues, adulterant

31

Whats the first step of risk assessment?

Hazard identification

32

3 major groups of adverse health effects

1) acute illness (vomiting, nausea)
2) chronic disease (cancer)
3) death

33

what is the toxin affecting the develop of a fetus, causing birth defects?

teratogen

34

what is teratogen?

toxin affecting the develop of a fetus, causing birth defects

35

what can be found in cassava?

Linamarin with cyanol group

36

How can linamarin be toxic? is it toxic by itself?

it have cyanol group that can form hydrogen cyanide (very lethal);
no

37

What are the 3 dose-response mechanisms?

1) non-threshold /
2) threshold _/¯
3) essential nutrients \_/

38

what is the anti-coagulant used to kill rodents? what mechanism does it have?

Broadifacoum;
threshold

39

what does LDx mean?

E.g. LD50: effective dose for 50% of the animal (if effect=death) / medium lethal dose

40

what is LOAEL? on the graph?

lowest observed adverse effect level;
the point above NOAEL

41

what is NOAEL?

no observed adverse effect level;

42

which is more potent, liquid or solid?

liquid

43

what is genotoxic chemical an example of?

non-threshold chemicals

44

Too high/too low level of copper can cause?

too high: diarrhea to fatal
too low: haematological disorders

45

what can copper deficiency be caused of?

increased zinc intake

46

what's the difference between acute and chronic exposure?

acute: within 24 hr;
chronic: long term

47

an outbreak in Spain caused by lamb meat

clenbuterol, a growth promotor (acute exposure)

48

an outbreak in Minamata, Japan caused by fish

Minamata disease, methyl-mercury (MeHg);
cause neurological disorder and affect fetus

49

what are some fish high in mercury

tuna, shark, swordfish (higher in the food chain)

50

what are some toxins ( remember to check out their structure)

acrylamide;
hydrogen cyanide;
methylmercury;
domoic aicd;

51

give an example of atom toxins

Pb(II); Cu(II); Cd(II)

52

what is a "small" molecule toxin, example?

< 900Da;
hydrogen cyanide, TCDD

53

what is one of the smallest toxins?

hydrogen cyanide

54

give an example of a non-volatile compound

copper sulfate

55

give examples of semi-volatile compound

PCBs, DDT

56

what are PCBs

polychlorinated biphenyls

57

give examples of volatile compound

fumigants (e.g. propylene oxides)

58

what properties does volatile compound have

high vapour pressure/ low BP

59

where can PCBs come from

contamination of animal feed

60

what is ciguatoxin produced from

dinoflagellates

61

Poisonous beetle found in spinach produce a toxin called __, example of what toxin?

cantharidin; naturally occurring toxin