UNIT#02 BIO-ENERGETICS Flashcards

1
Q

The most abundant protein in the chloroplast is:

A

Rubisco

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2
Q

The products of photosynthesis in green plants are:

A

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

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3
Q

An incorrect statement for photosynthesis is:

A

It uses oxygen

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4
Q

The quantitative study of energy relationship in the biological system is:

A

Bioenergetics

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5
Q

A kind of chemical link between anabolism and catabolism:

A

ATP

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6
Q

Oxygen released during photosynthesis comes from:

A

Water

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7
Q

NADH is oxidized during:

A

Lactic acid fermentation

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8
Q

Which of the following can perform anaerobic respiration?

A

➡Bacteria
➡Yeast
➡Skeletal Muscles

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9
Q

The amount of energy extracted from glucose molecules during respiration without oxygen is:

A

2%

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10
Q

The final fate of glucose in yeast when it is deprived of oxygen:

A

Alcohol

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11
Q

In cellular respiration, the product formed as a result of the release of energy:

A

ATP

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12
Q

Cellular respiration is directly involved in the production of:

A

Energy

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13
Q

Respiration is the universal process by which organisms break down complex compounds containing:

A

Carbon

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14
Q

In which process/processes stored energy in carbohydrates is released:

A

Respiration

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15
Q

The exchange of gases between an organism and its environment is called:

A

External Respiration

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16
Q

End products of anaerobic respiration in yeast:

A

➡Ethyl Alcohol
➡CO2

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17
Q

The compound formed during muscle fatigue is:

A

Lactic acid
(C3H6O3)

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18
Q

During extreme physiological activities, which form of anaerobic respiration occurs in muscle cells and other animals?

A

Lactic acid fermentation

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19
Q

The amount of glucose in ATP during anaerobic respiration:

A

2%

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20
Q

The breaking of the terminal phosphate of ATP releases energy of about:

A

7.3 KCal

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21
Q

Fermentation products produced by the yeast are:

A

➡Ethyl alcohol
➡Yeast

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22
Q

In aerobic respiration, only ____ % of energy present within the chemical bond of glucose is converted into ATP.

A

2

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23
Q

In which of the following component of the body, does lactic acid fermentation takes place?

A

Muscles

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24
Q

In alcoholic fermentation pyruvic acid is broken down into:

A

Ethyl alcohol

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25
Q

Pyruvate is broken down to ___ in yeast.

A

Alcohol

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26
Q

Lactic acid is produced as a result of:

A

Anaerobic Respiration

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27
Q

Which of the following is not respiration?

A

Formation of glucose

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28
Q

During respiratory chain o cellular respiration, cytochrome c oxidizes:

A

Cytochrome b
(Co-enzyme Q ➡Cytochrome b➡Cytochrome c)
Reduction Chain

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29
Q

Which of the following is the final acceptor of electrons in the respiratory chain?

A

Oxygen

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30
Q

The electron transport chain in mitochondria is used to:

A

Create proton gradient

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31
Q

Which of the following types of mammalian cells does not carry out oxidative phosphorylation?

A

Erythrocytes
(Lack mitochondria)

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32
Q

The stage of cellular respiration producing maximum ATP:

A

Chemiosmosis

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33
Q

ATP formation through oxidative phosphorylation involves:

A

Chemiosmosis

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34
Q

In the respiratory chain, NADH is oxidized by:

A

Coenzyme Q

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35
Q

Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in conjunction with the respiratory chain in the inner membrane of:

A

Mitochondrion

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36
Q

The correct sequence of cytochromes (Cyto-), the electron transport intermediate in ETC is:

A

Cyto-b ➡Cyto-c ➡Cyto-α ➡Cyto-α3

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37
Q

During the respiratory chain coenzyme, Q is oxidized by:

A

Cytochrome b

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38
Q

In mitochondria the pumping of protons (Chemiosmosis) is across the:

A

Inner Membrane

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39
Q

The electron transport chain system plays role in the generation of ATP by:

A

Chemiosmosis

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40
Q

The synthesis of ATP in the presence of oxygen is called:

A

Oxidative phosphorylation

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41
Q

Which one of the following is not concerned with oxidative phosphorylation?

A

Plastocyanin

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42
Q

The terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is:

A

Hydrogen

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43
Q

In which of the following life processes is ATP produced?

A

➡Photosyntheisis
➡Aerobic respiration
➡Anaerobic respiration

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44
Q

Oxygen plays ____ role in respiration

A

It is the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain

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45
Q

What is the product of the ETC in animals?

A

Water

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46
Q

Cytochromes are electron transport intermediates containing:

A

Haem

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47
Q

How do the electron transport intermediates containing:

A

Chemiosmosis

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48
Q

What is the end product o the ETC in animals?

A

Water

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49
Q

The final acceptor of electrons in the respiratory chain is?

A

Oxygen

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50
Q

Cytochrome a is oxidized by which of the following in ETC?

A

Cytochrome a3

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51
Q

What is the copper-containing protein involved in the ETC in plants?

A

Pc

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52
Q

Coenzyme Q is oxidized by which coenzyme?

A

Cytochrome b

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53
Q

Cytochrome b is reduced by:

A

Coenzyme Q

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54
Q

Cancer cells require large amounts of ATP. Which of the following produces a high number of ATP?

A

Oxidative phosphorylation

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55
Q

Enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation are present on:

A

Cristae

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56
Q

Electrons from NADH accepted by oxygen form how many ATPs?

A

3

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57
Q

Electron transport chain occurs in:

A

➡Inner membrane of mitochondria
➡Thylakoid membrane

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58
Q

Terminal carrier of cytochrome complex present in ETC:

A

a

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59
Q

NADH is oxidized by:

A

Co-enzyme Q

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60
Q

A number of ATP molecules used during the preparatory phase of glycolysis:

A

2
(3C=Glyceraldehyde Phosphate)

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61
Q

In plants, energy is released during the process of:

A

Respiration

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62
Q

Water is released during the conversion of:

A

2-phosphoglycerate➡PEP

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63
Q

Which one of the following represents de-phosphorylation?

A

Fructose 1,3 bisphoglycerate➡3 phosphoglycerate
(Dephosphorylation)

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64
Q

Gross production of ATP molecules during glycolysis is:

A

4

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65
Q

The net gain of energy from one molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration in prokaryotes is:

A

38 ATP
(Total=40 ATP
➡2 ATP are used in the preparatory phase

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66
Q

The oxidation of succinate produces:

A

FADH2
(by succinic acid dehydrogenase)

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67
Q

Both NADH and FADH2 are formed during:

A

Krebs cycle

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68
Q

When products of glycolysis pass through Krebs Cycle, they will produce:

A

6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP

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69
Q

The precursor of fumarate during the Krebs cycle requires ____ for fumarate synthesis.

A

Succinate dehydrogenase

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70
Q

Before pyruvate enters the citric acid cycle, it is decarboxylated, oxidized and combined with coenzyme A, forming acetyl CoA, carbon dioxide and one molecule of:

A

NADH

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71
Q

Starting from the end products of glycolysis, how many molecules of CO2 are produced up to the formation of succinate in a single Krebs cycle?

A

3
(➡one molecule is produced by pyruvate oxidation
➡two molecules are produced by the Krebs cycle)

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72
Q

Which of the following process is used in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?

A

➡Decarboxylation
➡Dehydrogenation

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73
Q

Phosphorylation of ATP during glycolysis occurs via:

A

Substrate level phosphorylation

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74
Q

Before entering the Krebs cycle, the pyruvate decarboxylated into;

A

Acetaldehyde

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75
Q

Glycolysis is a breakdown of glucose up to the formation of

A

Pyruvic acid

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76
Q

In which stage of cellular respiration does glucose break down into two molecules of Pyruvic acid?

A

Glycolysis

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77
Q

Cellular respiration is sub-divided into four stages. Which one of these does not take place in mitochondria?

A

Glycolysis

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78
Q

Glycolysis occurs in:

A

Cytosol

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79
Q

Glycolysis:

A

Produce no ATP

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80
Q

Pyruvic acid is produced as a result of:

A

Glycolysis

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81
Q

Which of the following is not the end product of glycolysis:

A

➡Pyruvate❌
➡Oxaloacetate✅
➡ATP❌
➡Reduced NAD❌

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82
Q

Glycolysis is the first phase of cellular respiration. Its products are:

A

➡2 NADH
➡2ATP
➡2 Pyruvates

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83
Q

Which of the following does occur for the formation of acetyl CoA from pyruvate?

A

Decarboxylation

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84
Q

Pyruvic acid, the end product of glycolysis, before entering the Krebs cycle is changed into two carbon compounds:

A

Acetic acid

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85
Q

Acetic acid on entering the mitochondrion unites with co-enzyme-A to form:

A

Active acetate

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86
Q

Conversion of one pyruvic acid into one acetyl CoA gives off one molecule of:

A

NADH

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87
Q

The first step in the Krebs cycle is the union of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate to form:

A

Citrate

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88
Q

At the beginning of Kreb’s cycle, acetyl CoA combines with which substrate to form citrate (6-C)

A

Oxaloacetate

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89
Q

The product of succinic acid by the action of enzymes is:

A

Fumaric acid

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90
Q

One molecule of FADH2 is produced in Kreb’s cycle during conversion of;

A

Succinate to Fumarate

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91
Q

From one pyruvate passing through Kreb’s cycle how many FADH2 molecules are formed?

A

1

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92
Q

Total NADH formed by one glucose molecule during Kreb’s cycle are:

A

6

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93
Q

In what stage of aerobic respiration are 2+ carbon molecules oxidized completely to carbon dioxide?

A

Kreb’s cycle

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94
Q

FADH2 is produced during:

A

Krebs cycle

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95
Q

Complete the breakdown of glucose molecule takes place in which of the following:

A

Aerobic respiration

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96
Q

Glycolysis takes place in:

A

Cytosol

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97
Q

Phosphofructokinase enzyme converts fructose-6-phosphate into:

A

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

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98
Q

What is the coenzyme that facilitates the oxidation of fumarate?

A

FAD

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99
Q

Where does the first stage of cellular respiration occur?

A

Cytosol

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100
Q

Acetyl CoA completely is oxidized to carbon dioxide and liberate

A

➡ATP
➡NADH
➡FADH

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101
Q

Which processes can take place in the presence and absence of oxygen;

A

Glycolysis

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102
Q

What energy-rich organic compound is produced as a result of the Calvin cycle?

A

Glucose

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103
Q

Oxaloacetate combines with which molecule to enter the Kreb’s cycle again?

A

Acetyl CoA

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104
Q

Hexokinase plays role in:

A

Glycolysis

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105
Q

Glucose is converted to ___ before entering the Krebs cycle.

A

Pyruvate

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106
Q

Hexokinase is the enzyme found in:

A

➡Glycolysis
➡Pentose pathway

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107
Q

Succinate is oxidized and forms:

A

FADH2

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108
Q

If a molecule is reduced it gains:

A

➡Energy
➡Electrons
➡Hydrogen protons

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109
Q

ATP synthase is located in the mitochondria:

A

Inner membrane

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110
Q

What is the final product of the Krebs cycle:

A

Oxaloacetate

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111
Q

From one pyruvate passing through the Krebs cycle, how many NADH are formed?

A

3

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112
Q

Cellular respiration is essentially what type of process:

A

Redox

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113
Q

What are the products of respiration in plants?

A

➡CO2
➡H2O
➡ATP

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114
Q

The pay-off phase of glycolysis conserve:

A

ATP

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115
Q

Fatty acid releases a considerable amount of energy in oxidation during:

A

Krebs cycle

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116
Q

How many carbons does citrate have in the Krebs cycle?

A

4

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117
Q

What is formed at the end of the preparatory phase of glycolysis?

A

➡G3P
➡Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

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118
Q

The end product of the citric acid cycle:

A

➡CO2
➡H2O

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119
Q

Oxaloacetate contains how many carbon atoms?

A

4

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120
Q

FADH2 is produced in?

A

Krebs cycle

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121
Q

Hans Krebs discovered ___.

A

Citric acid cycle

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122
Q

Phosphofructokinase is inhibited by:

A

High concentration of ATP

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123
Q

A high concentration of NADH inhibits:

A

Pyruvate decarboxylase

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124
Q

An Aldo sugar that is intermediate between respiration and photosynthesis?

A

Glyceraldehyde-3 -Phosphate

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125
Q

G3P is converted into glucose phosphate in:

A

Chloroplast

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126
Q

An 18-carbon fatty acid is converted into how many acetyl-CoA molecules?

A

9
(Acetyl-CoA has 2 carbon atoms)

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127
Q

Deamination of fatty acids takes place in:

A

Liver

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128
Q

Which is not true for the dark reactions?

A

➡Does not require light❌
➡It uses ATP❌
➡Also called Z-scheme✅
➡G3P is produced❌

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129
Q

The process in which carbon from CO2 is incorporated into an organic molecule

A

Calvin Cycle

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130
Q

Which is associated with the Calvin cycle?

A

Carbon dioxide fixation

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131
Q

The product o the dark reaction is:

A

G3P

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132
Q

If 12 NADPH are used in the Calvin cycle, then how many glucose molecules will be formed?

A

One
(6➡NADPH forms 1/2 G3P)

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133
Q

Calvin cycle is also known as the C3 pathway due to;

A

Production of 3 carbon 3PGA

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134
Q

For fixing 3 molecules of CO2 in the Calvin cycle, what is needed?

A

9ATP + 6NADPH2

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135
Q

Plastocyanin protein contains:

A

Copper

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136
Q

Iron-containing protein is;

A

Ferredoxin

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137
Q

The NADPH molecule will provide reducing power for the sugar in the:

A

Calvin Cycle

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138
Q

Which one of the following is not concerned with non-cyclic phosphorylation:

A

CO2

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139
Q

The products of cyclic phosphorylation are/are:

A

ATP

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140
Q

The mechanism of photophosphorylation takes place in conjunction with the respiratory chain in the inner membrane of:

A

Chloroplast

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141
Q

The process by which pH gradient across membrane drives the formation of ATP is:

A

Chemisoosmis

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142
Q

Thylakoid membranes are involved in ATP synthesis by:

A

Chemiosmosis

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143
Q

The Calvin cycle is also known as:

A

C3 Pathway

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144
Q

The dark reaction in photosynthesis occurs in:

A

Stroma

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145
Q

What is correct about RuBP?

A

Most abundant protein in nature

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146
Q

Which one is not the phase cycle of the Calvin Cycle?

A

Phosphorylation

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147
Q

Which of the following are the end products of the light-dependent stage, used in the Calvin cycle to change glycerate 3-phosphate into triose phosphates:

A

➡NADP
➡ATP

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148
Q

The most abundant protein in the chloroplast is :

A

Rubisco
(Found in the stroma of chloroplast)

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149
Q

Which of the following organisms have the greatest problem with photorespiration?

A

C3 plants

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150
Q

In which stage of photosynthesis, ATP and NADPH converted to ADP + Pi and NADP+?

A

Light independent reaction

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151
Q

The stage of photosynthesis that actually produces sugar is ____.

A

Calvin cycle

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152
Q

ATP molecules are consumed during which process?

A

Glycolysis

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153
Q

Molecular oxygen is released during:

A

Light reactions in photosynthesis

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154
Q

When is sugar formed in photosynthesis?

A

Light independent reaction

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155
Q

Which one is a light gathering structure?

A

Antenna complex

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156
Q

The molecular formula of chlorophyll b is:

A

C55H70O6N4Mg

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157
Q

Light reaction place in/on:

A

Thylakoids

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158
Q

Calvin cycle is:

A

Independent of light

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159
Q

RubisCO converts the addition of ____ RUBP to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.

A

CO2

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160
Q

Location of dark reactions in chloroplast:

A

Stroma

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161
Q

How many carbon atoms are present in a molecule of RUBISCO?

A

5

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162
Q

How many carbon atoms are present in Ribulose phosphate?

A

5

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163
Q

It moves in a cyclic manner in cyclic photophosphorylation:

A

Electrons

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164
Q

How many molecule/s of carbon dioxide enter the Calvin cycle to produce one molecule of carbohydrate:

A

3

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165
Q

Which enzyme is found in the thylakoid membrane that facilitates chemiosmosis?

A

ATP synthase

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166
Q

Out of the 6 molecules of G3P, how many molecules are used to make glucose?

A

1

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167
Q

What does ATP provide during photosynthesis?

A

Chemical Energy

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168
Q

Which reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme RuBisCO?

A

Carboxylation of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)

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169
Q

Enzymes for light-dependent reactions are present in:

A

Thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast

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170
Q

The water splitting step of photosynthesis is called;

A

Photolysis

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171
Q

In photosynthesis dark reaction is called so because:

A

It does not require light energy

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172
Q

How much net gain of G3P is obtained after one Calvin Cycle?

A

1

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173
Q

Which one of these occurs in dark reactions of photosynthesis?

A

Synthesis of PGAL

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174
Q

The path of electrons in the two photosystems is called:

A

Z scheme

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175
Q

The G3P is the end product of:

A

Calvin cycle

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176
Q

Cooperation of the two photosystems of the chloroplast is required for ____.

A

Reduction of NADP

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177
Q

The part of chloroplast where CO2 is fixed to manufacture sugar is?

A

Stroma

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178
Q

NADPH2 provides one of the following?

A

Energized electron

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179
Q

The ATP synthesis in plants during the ETC is called:

A

Photophosphorylation

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180
Q

Which molecule passes the mitochondrial membrane to begin the Krebs cycle?

A

Acetyl CoA

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181
Q

The most important photosynthetic pigment is

A

Chlorophyll a

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182
Q

For every three molecules of carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle how much G3P is produced?

A

6

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183
Q

Find out the correct sequence for movement of electrons during the light-dependent reaction;

A

Water, p680, p700, NADP

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184
Q

Photosystem I absorbs the maximum wavelength of light?

A

700

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185
Q

Which two reactions occur during photophosphorylation?

A

ATP is synthesized and NADP is reduced

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186
Q

Photosystems are located in:

A

Thylakoid membrane

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187
Q

What are the different stages of the Calvin cycle?

A

➡Carbon fixation
➡Reduction
➡Regeneration

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188
Q

Carbon dioxide is fixed in:

A

Dark reaction

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189
Q

The reaction of carbon dioxide and RUBP is catalyzed by:

A

RuBisCo

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190
Q

Chlorophylls are found embedded in the ____ membranes.

A

Thylakoid

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191
Q

Where do the light reactions take place?

A

Thylakoid membrane
(Light reaction)

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192
Q

The final acceptor of electrons during the non-cyclic electron pathway is:

A

NADP+

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193
Q

Each photon of light excites how many electrons?

A

1

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194
Q

Water splits during photosynthesis in/on:

A

Interior space of thylakoid

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195
Q

NADP+ reductase transfers electrons from:

A

Ferredoxin to NADP+

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196
Q

Which of the following is the correct sequence for the movement of electrons during non-cyclic photophosphorylation?

A

Water➡P680➡P700➡NADP+

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197
Q

Which statement is not true about the non-cyclic electron pathway?

A

Carbon dioxide fixation

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198
Q

NADPH2 is produced in photosynthesis during:

A

Non-Cyclic photophosryaltion

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199
Q

Z-scheme is another name used for:

A

Non-Cyclic photophosryaltion

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200
Q

Cooperation of the two photosystems of the chloroplast is required for:

A

Reduction of NADP+

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201
Q

It is the most energy-rich compound:

A

NADH

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202
Q

The synthesis of ATP in the presence o oxygen is called:

A

Oxidative phosphorylation

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203
Q

Where does the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation take place?

A

Mitochondria

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204
Q

Photosystem II has molecules which absorb maximum light o;

A

680nm

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205
Q

The point at which there are no net exchange o gases between leaves and the atmosphere is known as:

A

Compensation point

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206
Q

if more oxygen is present, the RuBisCO starts:

A

Photorespiration

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207
Q

Which type of light causes the highest rate of photosynthesis?

A

Red

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208
Q

About what % of photosynthesis is carried by terrestrial plants, while the rest occurs in ocean, lakes, and ponds

A

10

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209
Q

Which cells absorb carbon dioxide in lea?

A

Mesophyll cells

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210
Q

Bacteriochlorophylls do not include which of the following?

A

➡Chlorophyll a
➡Chlorophyll b
➡Chlorophyll c

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211
Q

The part of chlorophyll molecule that is embedded in the core of the thylakoid membrane is:

A

Hydrophobic

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212
Q

The electrons from Ferredoxin (Fd) to NADP+ are transferred by which enzyme?

A

NADP reductase

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213
Q

The molecular formula for chlorophyll a is:

A

NADP reductase

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214
Q

The molecular formula of chlorophyll a is:

A

C55H72O5N4Mg

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215
Q

The wavelength of light that the plants mainly absorb:

A

Red

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216
Q

The first action spectrum was obtained by:

A

T.W Engelmann

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217
Q

The first action spectrum was obtained by using:

A

Spirogyra

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218
Q

Organisms used ___ as a source of hydrogen.

A

Hydrogen sulphide

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219
Q

Water insoluble photosynthetic pigment:

A

➡Chlorphyll a
➡Chlorophyll b
➡Caretonids

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220
Q

Photosynthesis is absent in:

A

Mushrooms

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221
Q

What is the colour of xanthophyll pigment?

A

Yellow

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222
Q

What do two peaks in the action spectrum represent?

A

Consumption of Carbon Dioxide

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223
Q

These are all inorganic compounds except:

A

C6H12O6

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224
Q

What is generated during non-cyclic flow photosynthesis?

A

➡ATP
➡NADPH
➡Oxygen

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225
Q

What is the correct order of energy transfer from accessory pigments to main photosynthetic pigments:

A

Carotenoids, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophyll a

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226
Q

What type of plant cells carry out photosynthesis?

A

Parenchymatous cells

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227
Q

Which chemical reactions occur during the process of photosynthesis?

A

➡Oxidation
➡Reduction

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228
Q

Photosynthesis is a process in which ___ compounds of carbon and hydrogen are reduced to carbohydrate (Glucose) using light energy.

A

Energy Poor

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229
Q

Magnesium is important for the synthesis of which the following?

A

Chlorophyll

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230
Q

Va Neil’s hypothesis about the production o oxygen during photosynthesis was based on the study and investigation on?

A

Bacteria

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231
Q

The rate of photosynthesis does not depend upon:

A

Quality of light

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232
Q

Quantitive study of energy relationships in biological systems obeys:

A

Laws of thermodynamics

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233
Q

The graph that shows the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths in photosynthesis is?

A

Action spectrum

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234
Q

The percentage of light absorbed by the leaf is:

A

0.01

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235
Q

Which of the following statement about the head of the chlorophyll molecule is incorrect?

A

➡It is a porphyrin ring or tetrapyrrole ring❌
➡It is lat, square and light absorbing❌
➡Composed of carbon and nitrogen atoms with magnesium as a central metal ion❌
➡It is hydrophobic✅

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236
Q

What does NADPH2 provide during photosynthesis?

A

Energized electron

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237
Q

Carotenoids perform a protective function in which of the following organisms?

A

Plants

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238
Q

Chlorophyll molecule contains which of the following as a central metal ion?

A

Mg+2

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239
Q

In all plants the major sites for photosynthesis are:

A

Leaf

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240
Q

The organisms able to use sunlight directly as a source o energy are:

A

Plants

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241
Q

Which one is not an energy-releasing process?

A

Photosynthesis

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242
Q

Which pair of areas within a chloroplast will show the steepest pH gradient between them?

A

➡Stroma
➡Thylakoid interior space

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243
Q

Excretory products of autotrophic plants:

A

O2

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244
Q

Autotrophs live best in ___ in the environment

A

Inorganic

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245
Q

It is false about ATP

A

It is produced by the endoplasmic reticulum

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246
Q

Breaking of the terminal phosphate of ATP releases about KCal of energy:

A

7.3 KCal

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247
Q

The primary function of ATP is:

A

Energy source

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248
Q

One o the most important molecules found in living organisms is ATP. What is its major function?

A

The energy source of cell

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249
Q

Which one is a dollar of the cell?

A

ATP

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250
Q

A spectrophotometer is used to measure:

A

Absorption of different wavelengths

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251
Q

Which shows the effectiveness of wavelengths of light during photosynthesis?

A

Action Spectrum
(reported by T.W Engelmann)

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252
Q

The conversion of light energy into chemical energy is a function of;

A

Grana
(Light-dependent phase of photosynthesis)

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253
Q

The source of oxygen released during photosynthesis is:

A

Water
(reported by Van Neils hypothesis)

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254
Q

Van Neil’s hypothesis about the production of oxygen during photosynthesis was based on the study and investigations on:

A

Bacteria

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255
Q

The wavelength of blue light that is absorbed maximum by pigments:

A

430 nm➡Blue
670 nm➡Red

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256
Q

Which of the following groups does not use water as a proton donor?

A

Cyanobacteria
(bacteria use H2S only as proton donor)

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257
Q

Air contains ___ percentage of carbon dioxide

A

0.03-0.04

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258
Q

Carotenoids absorb strongly:

A

Blue-violet (absorb this range)
➡Carotenoids are Yellow and Red to Orange pigments

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259
Q

Magnesium is a central part of:

A

Porphyrin ring

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260
Q

Chlorophyll consists of:

A

A head of four pyrrole rings and a phytol tail

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261
Q

The following is the correct sequence of energy transfer between photosynthetic pigments:

A

Carotenoids ➡Chl.b ➡Chl.a

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262
Q

All of the followings are differences between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b except:

A

➡Chlorophyll a has different types while Chlorophyll b has a single type❌
➡Chlorophyll a have a functional group -CH3 but Chlorophyll b has -CHO❌
➡Chlorophyll a is a necessary pigment but Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigment❌
➡Chlorophyll a is present in the antenna complex while Chlorophyll b is in the reaction centre✅

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263
Q

The location of the phytol tail of chlorophyll b is:

A

Thylakoid membrane
(Hydrophobic core)

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264
Q

Which one of the following is not a function of carotenoids?

A

Convert light energy into chemical energy

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265
Q

Location of photosynthetic pigments in purple sulphur bacteria:

A

Cytoplasm

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266
Q

PS-I is named as it:

A

Discovered earlier than PS-II

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267
Q

Photosystem II has a reaction centre of:

A

P680
(Chlorophyll a)

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268
Q

During cyclic photophosphorylation, electrons pass from all except:

A

Photosystem II

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269
Q

Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the “lack of photosystem II” in these organisms would be:

A

To do experiments to generate an action spectrum

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270
Q

The number of chloroplast in each mesophyll cell is about:

A

20-100

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271
Q

Red corpuscles to haemoglobin as chloroplasts are to:

A

Palisade cells

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272
Q

The instrument used to measure the relative abilities of different pigments to absorb different wavelengths of light are:

A

Spectrophotometer

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273
Q

Which of the following is not an Accessory pigment

A

Chlorophyll a

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274
Q

Light wavelength least absorbed by chlorophyll is:

A

Yellow

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275
Q

One of the accessory pigments carotenes are mostly:

A

Red to Orange

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276
Q

Appliance Photosynthetic pigments Xanthopylls are:

A

Yellow in colour

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277
Q

The accessory photosynthetic pigments found in chloroplasts are:

A

➡Chlorphyll b
➡Carotenes

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278
Q

The head of the chlorophyll molecule is a complex molecule of:

A

Porphyrin Ring

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279
Q

The porphyrin ring of chlorophyll is made up of a few joined smaller:

A

Pyrrole rings

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280
Q

The long hydrocarbon tail of chlorophyll attached to the pyrrole ring is called:

A

Phytol

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281
Q

Hamee portion o haemoglobin contains:

A

Fe++

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282
Q

Magnesium of chlorophyll is replaced in haemoglobin by:

A

Iron

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283
Q

Chlorophyll molecule contains except:

A

Iron

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284
Q

Which metal atom is present in chlorophyll?

A

Mg

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285
Q

The molecular formula of chlorophyll “a” is:

A

C55H72O5N4Mg

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286
Q

The molecular formula of chlorophyll “b” is:

A

C55H70O6N4Mg

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287
Q

Chlorophyll “a” is:

A

Blue Green

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288
Q

Chlorophyll absorbs mainly wavelength :

A

Violet-Blue

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289
Q

Chlorophylls absorb mainly wavelength :

A

Violet-BLue

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290
Q

A graph plotting absorption of light of different wavelengths by a pigment is called:

A

Absorption Spectrum

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291
Q

The maximum absorption peaks of light are:

A

430-670

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292
Q

The first action spectrum was obtained by ____ 1883

A

T.W.Engelmann

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293
Q

The amount of Carbon dioxide present in the air is about:

A

0.03 to 0.04

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294
Q

The area of leaf surface covered by stomata is only:

A

1-2%

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295
Q

The percentage of photosynthesis carried out by terrestrial pants is about:

A

10

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296
Q

Photosynthetic pigments are organized into clusters, called:

A

Photosystems

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297
Q

Photosystem II has the form of chlorophyll which absorbs best the light of:

A

680 nm

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298
Q

ATP synthesis in the presence of light is called:

A

Photophosphorylation

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299
Q

At which times there is no net gaseous exchange between leaves and the atmosphere?

A

➡Dawn
➡Dusk

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300
Q

Which of the following is a compensation point?

A

Photosynthesis and respiration occur at the same rate.

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301
Q

Photosynthetic pigments are organized in form of?

A

Photosystems

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302
Q

The number of chloroplasts in each mesophyll cell is about:

A

20-100

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303
Q

A quantitative study of energy relationships in a biological system is called:

A

BIoenergetics

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304
Q

Important sources of atmospheric oxygen released during photosynthesis are:

A

Water

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305
Q

Accessory photosynthetic pigments xanthophylls are:

A

Yellow in colour

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306
Q

The area of leaf surface covered by stomata is only:

A

1-2%

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307
Q

The first action spectrum was obtained by;

A

T.W. Engelmann

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308
Q

Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through::

A

Stomata

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309
Q

Photosynthetic pigments are the substances that absorb visible light having a wavelength

A

380-750 nm

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310
Q

Chlorophyll “a” is:

A

Blue-green

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311
Q

Hame portion of haemoglobin is the same as the porphyrin ring with a difference of:

A

Iron atom

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312
Q

The number of chloroplast in each mesophyll cell is about:

A

20-200

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313
Q

Magnesium of chlorophyll is replaced in haemoglobin by:

A

iron

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314
Q

Total photosynthesis is carried out by the terrestrial plants in about:

A

20%

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315
Q

Each mesophyll cell of a leaf has chloroplasts about:

A

2-100

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316
Q

Which wavelength of light is least absorbed by chorohpylls?

A

Yellow

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317
Q

Photosynthetic pigments organized into clusters are called:

A

Photosystems

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318
Q

The carotenes are mostly red to:

A

Orange

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319
Q

Photosystem II has the form of chlorophyll ‘a” which absorb best the light of:

A

680 nm

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320
Q

Photosynthetic pigments in plants are organized into clusters called:

A

Photosystems

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321
Q

A quantitative study of energy relationships in a biological system is called:

A

Bioenergetics

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322
Q

The hypothesis that plants split water as a source of hydrogen was given by:

A

Van Neil

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323
Q

Thylakoid membranes are involved in ATP synthesis by:

A

Glycolysis

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324
Q

Energy-poor inorganic oxidized compounds are reduced to energy-rich carbohydrates during:

A

Photosynthesis

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325
Q

The fluid-filled region of the chloroplast is:

A

Stroma

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326
Q

Magnesium of chlorophyll is replaced in haemoglobin by:

A

Iron

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327
Q

The first action spectrum was obtained by T.W Engelmann in 1883 working on:

A

Spirogyra

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328
Q

Chlorophyll is insoluble in:

A

Water

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329
Q

The light falling on the leaf surface is absorbed about:

A

1%

330
Q

haem portion of haemoglobin is also a porphyrin ring but contains an iron atom instead of:

A

Magnesium Ion

331
Q

Plastocyanin protein contains:

A

Copper

332
Q

The dark reactions occur in:

A

Stroma

333
Q

The electron transport chain system plays role in the generation of ATP by:

A

Chemiosmosis

334
Q

Iron contains protein is;

A

Ferredoxin

335
Q

The process by which pH gradient across membrane drivers the formation of ATP is called:

A

Chemiosmosis

336
Q

Which one is not the phase of the Calvin cycle?

A

Phosphorylation

337
Q

FADH2 is produced during the following step of the Krebs cycle:

A

Succinate to fumarate

338
Q

The water splitting step of photosynthesis that releases oxygen is called:

A

Photolysis

339
Q

Which one of the following is not concerned with non-cyclic phosphorylation?

A

Isocitrate

340
Q

The spitting of water and release of O2 during light reactions are:

A

Photolysis

341
Q

The NADPH molecule will provide reducing power for the synthesis of sugar is the:

A

Calvin cycle

342
Q

Rubisco is the most abundant protein in:

A

Chloroplast

343
Q

Rubisco is;

A

An enzyme

344
Q

Calvin cycle is also known as:

A

C3 Pathway

345
Q

Photosystem II has the form of chlorophyll which absorbs the best light of;

A

680 nm

346
Q

Oxygen is released during photosynthesis comes from:

A

H2O

347
Q

Pyruvic acid is produced as a result of;

A

Glycolysis

348
Q

Ferredoxin is a protein that contains;

A

Iron

349
Q

The final product of glycolysis is:

A

Pyruvate

350
Q

End products of anaerobic respiration in yeast:

A

➡Ethyl Alcohol
➡CO2

351
Q

The breaking of the terminal phosphate of ATP releases energy of about:

A

7.3 KCal

352
Q

Enzymes involved in cellular respiration are found in:

A

Mitochondria

353
Q

The first step of the Krebs cycle is the union of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate to form:

A

Citrate

354
Q

Acetic acid on entering the mitochondria unites with co-enzyme-A to form:

A

Active acetate

355
Q

Conversion of one pyruvic acid into one acetyl CoA gives off one molecule of:

A

NADH

356
Q

The end product of glucose breakdown during glycolysis is:

A

Pyruvic acid

357
Q

The amount of glucose converted into ATP during anaerobic respiration is:

A

2%

358
Q

Glycolysis is the breakdown o glucose up to the formation of:

A

Pyruvic acid

359
Q

In the respiratory chain, NADH is oxidized by:

A

Coenzyme

360
Q

The synthesis of ATP in the presence of oxygen is called:

A

Oxidative phosphorylation

361
Q

During the respiratory chain coenzyme, Q is oxidized by:

A

Cytochrome b

362
Q

Which one of the following is not concerned with oxidative phosphorylation?

A

Plastocyanin

363
Q

The formula of lactic acid is:

A

C3H4O3

364
Q

The amount of energy present within the chemical bonds of glucose is converted:

A

1%

365
Q

The chemical links between catabolism and anabolism are:

A

ATP

366
Q

Glycolysis means the breakdown of:

A

Glucose

367
Q

From one pyruvate passing through Kreb’s cycle FADH2 molecules are formed:

A

1

368
Q

Pyruvic acid is produced as a result of;

A

Glycolysis

369
Q

The process of glycolysis occurs in:

A

Cytosol

370
Q

Cytochromes contains:

A

Iron

371
Q

Kreb’s cycle takes place in:

A

Mitochondria

372
Q

Carotenoids absorb strongly

A

Blue violet

373
Q

The most abundant protein in chloroplast is

A

Rubisco

374
Q

Magnesium a central part of

A

Porphyrin ring

375
Q

The products of photosynthesis in green plants are

A

Glucose, Oxygen and water

376
Q

Location of phytol tail of chlorophyll B is

A

Thylakoid membrane

377
Q

PS-1 is named as it

A

Discovered earlier than PS-2

378
Q

The source of oxygen released during photosynthesis is

A

Water

379
Q

Which one of the following is not function of carotenoids

A

Convert light energy into chemical energy

380
Q

Which of the following is correct sequence for the movement of electrons during non cycling photophosphorylation?

A

Water——P680——P700—–NADP+

381
Q

Chlorophyll consists of

A

A head of 4 pyrrole rings and a phytol tail

382
Q

Following is correct sequence of energy transfer between photosynthetic pigments

A

Carotenoids—-Chlorophyll B—–Chlorophyll A

383
Q

Conversion of light energy into chemical energy is function of

A

Grana

384
Q

All of the following are differences between chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B except

A

Chlorophyll A is present in antenna Complex while chlorophyll B is in reaction centre

385
Q

Spectrophotometer is used to measure

A

Absorption of different wavelengths

386
Q

Which shows the effectiveness of wavelength of light driving photosynthesis

A

Action spectrum

387
Q

Incorrect statement for photosynthesis is

A

It uses oxygen

388
Q

Which is not true for dark reaction

A

Also called Z-scheme

389
Q

Where does the light reactions take place

A

Thylakoid membrane

390
Q

Each photon of light excites how many electrons

A

1

391
Q

Water splits during photosynthesis in

A

Interior space of thylakoid

392
Q

During cyclic photophosphorylation electrons pass from all except

A

Photo system 2

393
Q

The process in which carbon from CO2 is incorporated into organic molecule

A

Calvin cycle

394
Q

Which statement is not true about the non cyclic electron pathway

A

Carbon dioxide fixation

395
Q

Which is most necessary associated with Calvin cycle

A

Carbon dioxide fixation

396
Q

The product of dark reaction is

A

G3P

397
Q

The final acceptor of electrons during the noncyclic electron pathway is

A

NADP+

398
Q

If 12 NADPH are used in Calvin cycle then how many glucose molecules will be formed

A

1

399
Q

Calvin cycle is also known as C3 pathway due to

A

Production of 3 carbon 3PGA

400
Q

NADPH2 is produced in photosynthesis during

A

Noncyclic photophosphorylation

401
Q

For fixing 3 molecules of CO2 in Calvin cycle, what is needed?

A

9 ATP + 6 NADPH2

402
Q

ATP formation through oxidative phosphorylation involves

A

Chemiosmosis

403
Q

NADP+ reductase transfers electron from

A

Ferredoxin to NADP+

404
Q

How much energy is released by breaking a terminal phosphate group of ATP

A

7.3 kilo calories

405
Q

What happens in glycolysis when Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is converted into two 3 carbon compound

A

No ATP and NADH used

406
Q

Water is released during conversion of

A

2-Phosphoglycerate—–PEP

407
Q

The oxidation of succinate produces

A

F A D H 2

408
Q

Both NADH and FADH2 are formed during

A

Kreb’s cycle

409
Q

When products of glycolysis passes through Kreb’s cycle, it will produce

A

6NADH, 2FADH2, 2ATP

410
Q

Acetyl-CoA formation is from

A

Pyruvate and Coenzyme

411
Q

Which one of following give more ATP in ETC

A

NADH

412
Q

Biological oxidation involves removal of hydrogen, linked with specific coenzymes and is catalyzed by

A

Dehydrogenases

413
Q

Which of the following is the final acceptor of electron in respiratory chain

A

Oxygen

414
Q

Before pyruvate enters the citric acid cycle, it is decarboxylated, oxidised and combined with coenzyme A, forming acetyl coenzyme A, carbon dioxide and one molecule of

A

NADH

415
Q

Electron transport chain in mitochondria is used to

A

Create Proton gradient

416
Q

The precursor of fumarate during Kreb’s cycle require _____ for fumarate synthesis

A

Succinate dehydrogenase

417
Q

Starting from end products of glycolysis, how many CO2 are produced up to the formation of succinate in a single Kreb’s cycle

A

3

418
Q

In respiratory chain, FADH2 causes reduction of

A

Coenzyme Q

419
Q

The stage of cellular respiration producing maximum ATP

A

Chemiosmosis

420
Q

Phosphofructokinase is inhibited by

A

Increase in NADH

421
Q

Phosphorylation of ADP during glycolysis occurs via

A

Substrate level phosphorylation

422
Q

Which one of the following represents de-phosphorylation?

A

Fructose 1,3bisphosphoglycerate —-3 phosphoglycerate

423
Q

In cellular respiration, product formed as a result of release of energy

A

ATP

424
Q

Which of the following process is used in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?

A

Decarboxylation and dehydrogenation

425
Q

The net gain of energy from one molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration in prokaryotes is

A

38 ATP

426
Q

In yeast pyruvic acid is converted to

A

Ethyl alcohol

427
Q

About 2% energy of chemical bonds of glucose is converted into ATP by

A

Fermentation

428
Q

This process may has CO2 as it products

A

Fermentation

429
Q

C3H6O3 formation relates to

A

Fermentation

430
Q

Cellular respiration is essentially a/an _______ process

A

Oxidation

431
Q

Which of the following types of mammalian cell does not carry out oxidative phosphorylation

A

Erythrocytes

432
Q

The difference between respiration and combustion is related to respiration being

A

All of these
Multi step reactions
enzyme controlled
intracellular

433
Q

In plants energy is released during the process of

A

Respiration

434
Q

During process of lactic acid fermentation

A

NADH is oxidised

435
Q

The molecule regenerated by fermentation

A

NAD+

436
Q

Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem2, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem2 in these organisms would be

A

To test for Liberation of O2 in the light

437
Q

Z-scheme is another name used for

A

Non-cyclic photophosphorylation

438
Q

PS-|| has reaction centre of

A

P680

439
Q

Which of the following is a molecule formed in a metabolic pathway by the equal splitting of phosphorylated hexose into two halves

A

Triose phosphate

440
Q

What is the function of molecular Oxygen in cellular respiration

A

To combine with hydrogen from organic molecules to produce water

441
Q

How many moles of carbon dioxide are produced by the complete oxidation of one mole of pyruvate

A

3

442
Q

The reaction which occurs in thylakoid interior space

A

Photolysis

443
Q

In photosynthetic prokaryotes which of the following might be absent

A

Grana

444
Q

The wavelength of light least absorbed by carotenes are

A

Blue to green

445
Q

What will be the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms respectively in the tail of chlorophyll B molecule

A

20,39

446
Q

A plant shifts from cyclic to non cyclic flow of electrons when

A

Assimilating power is restored

447
Q

Photo system 1 and 2 are differentiated on the basis of their

A

Chlorophyll A

448
Q

In which of the following steps NADH is formed without decarboxylation

A

Malate—–oxaloacetate

449
Q

The oxidation of which of the following will produce FADH2

A

Succinate

450
Q

Light energy is converted into chemical energy through the formation of

A

ATP and NADPH2

451
Q

Photophosphorylation during photosynthesis consists of

A

Cyclic and non cyclic phosphorylation

452
Q

The by product of photosynthesis is

A

Oxygen

453
Q

Stroma is ground matrix of

A

Chloroplast

454
Q

In which wavelength of light photosynthes is maximum

A

Red light

455
Q

Source of protons within the chloroplast is

A

Water

456
Q

Dark reactions of carbon assimilation occur in

A

Chloroplast

457
Q

The number of carbon atoms present in ribulose

A

5

458
Q

ATP molecules required for synthesis of a glucose molecule in Benson-Kelvin cycle or

A

18

459
Q

Photophosphorylation is synthesis of

A

ATP from ADP

460
Q

When a molecule of pyruvic acid is subjected to anaerobic respiration and forms lactic acid then

A

Loss of 3 molecules of ATP

461
Q

Incomplete break down of Sugars in anaerobic respiration forms

A

Alcohol and CO2

462
Q

Following is/are obtained during cyclic photophosphorylation

A

ATP

463
Q

ATP formation occurs during all of the following steps of aerobic respiration except

A

Pyruvic acid oxidation

464
Q

Action spectrum of photosynthes was described in 1883 by

A

T.W. Engelmann

465
Q

Conversion of NAD+ into NADH requires

A

2 electrons 1 proton

466
Q

Net equation of photosynthesis is exaclty oppte to the equation of;

A

Aerobic respiration

467
Q

Which of the following colour is absorbed by carotenoids and reflected by chlorphylls?

A

Green

468
Q

Pyrrole rings of chlorphylls are composed of:

A

➡Carbon
➡Nitrogen

469
Q

When equal intensities of light are given, there is more photosynthesis

A

Red

470
Q

These are least abosorbed by chlorphylls:

A

Green-Yellow

471
Q

Which two elements are common in porphyrin ring and phytol of chlorophyll?

A

➡Carbon
➡Hydrogen

472
Q

All life on this planet Earth is powered directly or indirectly by

A

Solar Energy

473
Q

The most efficient wavelength to carry out photosynthesis is off;

A

Red Colour

474
Q

The entry of CO2 in leaves mainly depends upon:

A

Opening of stomata

475
Q

How many photons are required to excite electron from chlorophyll molecule?

A

1

476
Q

The first step in non-cyclic photophosphorylation is;

A

Photoexcitation of electrons

477
Q

During chemiosmosis in photosynthesis, protons are pumped from:

A

Stroma to thylakoid space

478
Q

Photoexcited electrons pass from PS II to PS I via:

A

Electron Transport Chain

479
Q

Mechanism of formaton of ATP during photosynthesis is called;

A

Chemiosmosis

480
Q

NADPH provides ___ during light indepedent phase of photosynthesis:

A

➡Electrons
➡Energy
➡Protons

481
Q

It is the final acceptor of electrons in light dependent phase of photosynthesis:

A

NADP+

482
Q

In light independent stage of photosynthesis, the CO2 combines with RuBP to form;

A

Unstable 6-carbon intermediate

483
Q

How many ATP are required to synthesize one glucose molecule through Calvin cycle?

A

18

484
Q

Most of the enzymes required to produce carbohydrates molecules during photosynthesis are placed in:

A

Thylakoid

485
Q

During aerobic respiration, glucose is oxidized to:

A

➡H2O
➡CO2
➡Energy

486
Q

it is a step of cellular respiration where energy is utilized instead of being released:

A

Fermentation

487
Q

The breaking of the terminal phosphate of ATP releases about ____ of energy.

A

7.3 K cal

488
Q

It involves complete breakdown of glucose molceule

A

Aerobic respiration

489
Q

Both ATP production and consumption are the feature of only:

A

Glycolysis

490
Q

It is an energy consuming conversion of glycolysis:

A

Fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

491
Q

The end product of the preparatory phase of glycolysis is:

A

G3P

492
Q

Which of the following finally produced as result of pyruvic acid oxidation before it enters Kreb’s cycle?

A

Acetyl CoA

493
Q

All of the following changes are associated with pyruvate during pyruvic acid oxidation except;

A

Phosphorylation

494
Q

Normally oxidative phosphorylation is coupled with:

A

Respiratory chain

495
Q

The last molecule of ATP in the respiratory chain is produced when :

A

Cytochrome a3 is oxidized

496
Q

Considering following pairs of respiratory chain, first one is reduced and 2nd one is oxidized all except;

A

Cytochrome c- Cytochrome a

497
Q

Out of 38 ATP molecuels produced per glucose, 32 molecules are from NADH2 and FADH2 via:

A

Respiratory chain

498
Q

Phase of cellular respiration during which NADH and FADH2 are oxidized

A

Respiratory chain

499
Q

In electron transport chain, the electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed to;

A

Co-enzyme Q

500
Q

The final electron acceptor during oxidative phosphorylation is:

A

Oxygen

501
Q

How many electrons are removed when one NADH is oxidized through the respiratory chain?

A

2

502
Q

During cellular respiration, increased level of ATP will inhibit most commonly:

A

Phosphofructokinase

503
Q

Pick the correct order of respiratory chain:

A

Coenzyme Q➡ Cytochrome b➡ Cytochrome a➡ cytochrome a3➡

504
Q

It is by product of photosynthesis

A

O2

505
Q

It is true about peaks and valley of action spectrum:

A

➡Peaks - Broader
➡Valley - Narrower

506
Q

All of the following are accessory pigments of photosynthesis except:

A

Chlorophyll b

507
Q

Oxygen released during photosynthesis comes from;

A

H2O

508
Q

Porphyrin ring of chlorophyll is made of how many pyrrols?

A

4

509
Q

How many porphyrin rings are present in a haeme of hemoglobin

A

1 ring

510
Q

Most efficent wavelength to carry out photosynthesis is of:

A

Red colour

511
Q

The wavelength that is abosrbed by photosyntheticc pigments will be;

A

Disappeared

512
Q

All of the following are related to head of chlorophyll except:

A

Anchoring part

513
Q

Nitrogen is present in ___ of chlorophyll molecule

A

Hydrophilic region

514
Q

Maximum range of wavelength absorbed by chlorophyll b is:

A

400-500 nm

515
Q

Entry of CO2 leaves mainly depends upon:

A

Opening of stomata

516
Q

Source of oxygen released during photosynthesis is ___ not ___.

A

Water and CO2 respectively

517
Q

NADP and CO2 both are reduced during photosynthesis by hydrogen. Their reduction occurs respectively in:

A

➡Light Reaction
➡Dark Reaction

518
Q

It has main role in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy :

A

Reaction Center

519
Q

First step in non-cyclic photophosphorylation is:

A

Photoexciation of electrons

520
Q

Which of the following electron carrier of light reactions will be at lowest energy level:

A

Plastocyanin

521
Q

Formation of NADPH during light dependent phase of photosynthesis is called:

A

Photoreduction

522
Q

Which of the following is not involved in cyclic photophosphorylation?

A

Photosystem II

523
Q

All of the following are requirements of non-cyclic photophosphrylation except:

A

Carbon dioxide

524
Q

Chemical energy and energized electrons for dark reactions are provided by ____ and ____ respectively.

A

ATP & NADPH

525
Q

During chemiosmosis in photosynthesis, protons pumped from ___ to ____.

A

Stroma to thylakoid lumen

526
Q

During the Calvin cycle, which of the following is formed as a result of dephosphorylation

A

G3P

527
Q

How many water molecules are released during one Calvin cycle?

A

3

528
Q

All of the following are required for Calvin cycle except:

A

Light energy

529
Q

NADPH from light reactions are involved in ___ phase of Calvin cycle.

A

Reduction

530
Q

Which of the following does not contain a five-carbon sugar?

A

Rubisco

531
Q

What does carbon fixation refer in Calvin cycle?

A

Incorporation of CO2 in RuBP

532
Q

Formula for lactic acid is;

A

C3H6O3

533
Q

It is the process by which energy is made available to cells in a step by step breakdwon o C-chain molecules in the cells

A

Cellular respiration

534
Q

Acetaldehyde is formed as an intermediate compound during:

A

Ethanol fermentation

535
Q

The fate of pyruvic acid depnds upon:

A

Availability of O2

536
Q

During anaerobic respiration, how much energy o glucose is converted into ATP?

A

2%

537
Q

Both ATP production and consumption are the feature of only:

A

Glycolysis

538
Q

Step of cellular respiration that does not depend upon availability of oxygen is;

A

Glycolysis

539
Q

It is the product of preparatory phase of glycolysis

A

PGAL

540
Q

It is the product of glycolysis

A

Pyruvate

541
Q

ATPs are consumed during:

A

Glycolysis

542
Q

It is true about preparatory phase of glycolysis:

A

ATP are consumed

543
Q

Which of the following finally produced as result of pyruvic acid oxidation before it enters Krebs cycle?

A

Acetyl CoA

544
Q

During aerobic respiration, oxidation of glucose is completed in:

A

Krebs cycle

545
Q

All of the following are formed when alpha-ketoglutarate is converted into succinate during Krebs cycle except:

A

FADH2

546
Q

How many molecules of NADH are formed when one glucose molceuls passes thorugh Krebs cycle?

A

6

547
Q

During Krebs cycle, conversion of succinate into fumarate give rise to:

A

FADH2

548
Q

The chemical formula of pyruvic acid is:

A

C3H4O3

549
Q

In aerobic respiration, H2O as a final product is generated during:

A

Oxidative phosphorylation

550
Q

How many electrons are removed when one NADH is oxidized thorugh respiraotry chain?

A

2

551
Q

Pyruvate decarboxylase (an enzyme of cellular respiration) can be inhibited by:

A

⬆NADH

552
Q