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Scientific method

Testing the truth of a proposition by careful measurement and controlled observation.

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Research method

A systematic approach to answering scientific questions.

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Humanistic psychology

Focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals. Focuses more on free will.

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Critical thinking

An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information.

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Psychoanalytic psychology

A Freudian based school of psychology that focuses it's study on the unconscious mind.

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Psychoanalyst

A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis.

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Theory

A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data and predicts future observation.

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Parapsychology

The study of extra normal psychological events, such as extrasensory perception.

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Gestalt psychology

Emphasizes the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.

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Functionalism

Concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environment.

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Behaviorism

School that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior.

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Psychology

The scientific stuff of behavior and mental processes.

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Science

A body of knowledge gained through systematic observation and experimentation.

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Cognitive behaviorism

Combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior.

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Psychoanalysis

The first "talking therapy" that uses Freudian approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflict.

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empirical evidence

facts or information based on direct observation or experience.

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Scientific observational

An investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world.

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Introspection

To look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations.

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Experimental self-observation

Wundt's technique of combining trained introspection with objective measurement.

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Structuralism

Concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements or "building blocks"

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Frame of reference

A mental or emotional perspective used for judging and evaluating events.

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Self-evaluation

Positive and negative feelings held towards oneself.

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Self-image

Subjective perception of oneself including images of one's body, personality, capabilities, and so fourth.

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Control

Altering conditions that influence behavior in predictable ways.

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Free will

The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions.

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Neo-Freudians

Psychologists who accept Freud's theory but have revised it to fit their needs.

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Covert behavior

A response that is internal or hidden from view.

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Overt behavior

An action or response that is directly observable.

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Conditioned response

A reflex response that has become associated with a new stimulus, or a learned reaction to a particular stimulus.

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Determinism

The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if known.

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Prediction

An ability to accurately forecast behavior.

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Natural selection

Darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to their conditions.

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Understanding

Achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated. Answers the "why" question.

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Description

The process I naming and classifying. Does not answer "why" questions.

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Psychiatrist

A medical doctor with additional training in treatment of mental and emotional disorders.

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Applied research

Scientific study undertaken to solve immediate practical problems.

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Basic research

Scientific study undertaken without concern for immediate practice application.

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Social norms

Unspoken rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group.

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Self-actualization

The ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential.

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Cultural relativity

The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs.

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Naturalistic observation

Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings.

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Observer effect

Changes in a person's or animal's behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed.

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Observe bias

The tendency Of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations.

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Anthropomorphic error

The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior.

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Observational record

A detailed summary of observed events or a video of observed behavior; a formal log of FAA and observations

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Correlational study

A non experimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (I any) between two or more events, measures, or variables.

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Correlation

The existence of a consistent systematic relationship between two or more rents, measures, or variables.

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Coefficient of Correlation

Expresses the strength and direction of a relationship; a statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 indicating direction and degree of correlation.

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Positive correlation

A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by increases in the other (or decreases with decreases)

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Negative correlation

A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by decreases in the other.

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Causation

The act of causing something.

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Experiment

A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a fact or principle

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Experimental subject

Humans or animals whose behavior is investigated in an experiment

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Control group

The group if subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable.

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Experimental group

The group of subjects exposed to the independent variable.

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Random assignment

The use of chance to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.

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Variable

Any condition thy changes or can be made to change; a measure, event, or state that may vary.

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Independent variable

The condition bing investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.

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Dependent variable

The condition that is affected by the independent variable.

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Extraneous variables

Conditions or factors excluded from ofly influencing the outcome of an experiment.

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Statistically significant

Experimental results that would rarely occur by chance alone; a difference must be large enough so that it would occur by chance less than 5 experiments out of 100

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Replication

Repeating observations or experiments to confirm prior conclusions.

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Meta-analysis

A statistical technique for combining the results of many studies on the same subject.

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Over-generalization

Blowing a single event out of proportion by extending it to a large number if unrelated situations.

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Placebo

An inactive substance given in the place if a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion.

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Placebo effect

Changes in behavior due to expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect.

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Single-blind experiment

An arrangement in which subject remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental or control group.

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Double-blind experiment

An experiment in which both subjects an experimenters are unaware of whether subjects are in the experimental or control group.

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Case study

An independent focus on all aspects if a single person.

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Survey method

The use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions

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Representative sample

A small randomly selected part if a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics if the whole population.

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Population

An entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category.

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Palmistry

False system that claims to reveal personality traits and I predicts the future by "reading" lines on the palms if the hand

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Phrenology

False and antiquated system based on the belief that personality traits could be revealed by the shape if the skull

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Graphology

False system based in the belief that handwriting can reveal personality traits.

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Astrology

Fake system based on the belief that human behavior is influenced by the position of the stars at birth.

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Hypnosis

An altered state of consciousness characterized by abattoirs attention and increased suggestibility

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Precognition

The purported ability to accurately predict future events.

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Psychokinesis

The purported ability I mentally later or influence objects or events

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Telepathy

The purported ability to directly know another person's thoughts.

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Clairvoyance

Te purported ability I perceive events at a distance or through a physical barrier.