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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (46):
1

Structuralism

Early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.

2

Functionalism

Early school of through promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

3

Experimental psychology

The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.

4

Behaviorism

The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

5

Humanistic psychology

A historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people.

6

Cognitive neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

7

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes.

8

Empiricism

The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.

9

Nature-nurture issue

The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.

10

Natural selection

The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

11

Levels of analysis

The differing complimentary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

12

Biopsychosocial approach

An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

13

Behavioral psychology

The scientific study of observable behavior, and it's explanation by principles of learning.

14

Biological psychology

The scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes. (Some biological psychologists call themselves "behavioral neuroscientists," "neuropsychologists," "behavior geneticists," "physiological psychologists," or "biopsychologists."

15

Cognitive psychology

The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

16

Evolutionary psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.

17

Psychodynamic psychology

A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

18

Social-cultural psychology

The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

19

Psychometrics

The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

20

Basic research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

21

Developmental psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

22

Educational psychology

The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

23

Personality psychology

The study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

24

Social psychology

The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

25

Applied research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

26

Industrial organizational (I/O) psychology

The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

27

Human factors psychology

An I/O psychology sub field that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.

28

Counseling psychology

A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

29

Clinical psychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

30

Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

31

Positive psychology

The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

32

Community psychology

A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

33

Testing effect

Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

34

SQ3R

A study method incorporating five steps: survey, questions, read, retrieve, review.

35

Wilhelm Wundt

Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.

36

G. Stanley Hall

In 1883, Wundt's American student G. Stanley Hall went on to establish the first formal U. S. Psychology laboratory, at Johns Hopkins university.

37

William James and Mary Whiton Calkins

James was a legendary teacher-writer who authored an important 1890 psychology text. He mentored Calkins, who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association (APA).

38

Margaret Floy Washburn

The first woman to receive a psychology Ph. D, Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in "The Animal Mind."

39

Sigmund Freud

The controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity's self-understanding.

40

John B. Watson

Watson championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as "Little Albert."

41

B. F. Skinner

A leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.

42

Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers led the humanistic psychologists, and found both Freudian psychology and behaviorism too limiting.

43

Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who pioneered the study of learning.

44

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget was an influential observer of children and a Swiss biologist.

45

Charles Darwin

Darwin argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.

46

Dorothea Dix

Dorothea Dix was a pioneer of therapy. She led the way to humane treatment of those with psychological disorders.