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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (59):
1

What is the main function of protein?

growth, maintenance and repair

2

If not used for the main function of protein what is it stored as?

a secondary source of energy

3

Name some high biological values (HBV) of protein?
(Animal sources)

meat, fish, eggs and milk products (cheese and yogurt)

4

Name some low biological values (LBV) of protein?
(Plant sources) - lack 1 or more essential amino acid

peas, beans, lentils, soya, cereals (wheat, flour, pasta), nuts and seeds

5

Explain the effect of too much protein?

Excess protein is converted to fat and stored in the body, risk of obesity.

*Obesity puts the body at risk of CHD, strokes, bowel disease, arthritis and cancer.

6

Explain the effect of too little protein?

Bones and muscles may be weak or not develop properly.

Feel tired and listless.

7

What is the function of fat?

It provides a layer of insulation to keep warm and protect our vital organs.

8

What is saturated fat?

Animal sources and are bad for health. (unhealthy)

butter, lard, milk, cheese, oily fish, cream, fat on meat.

9

What is unsaturate fat?

Plant sources.(healthy)

Vegetable oils, margarine, nuts, seeds.

10

What is an example of essential fatty acids?

Omega-3 & 6

11

Where are omega 3 fatty acids found?

In oily fish.
tuna, mackerel, sardines and salmon

12

Where are omega 6 fatty acids found?

In sunflower oil, corn oils and soya oils.

13

Explain the effect of too much fat?

Excess fat is stored in the body so you are at risk of obesity.

*obesity puts the body at risk of CHD, strokes, bowel disease, arthritis and caner.

14

Explain the effect of too little fat?

If you don't have enough fat feel tired, lethargic and listless.

You may also feel cold

15

What is the function of carbohydrates?

During digestion carbohydrates are broken down into sugar which cells in the use for ENERGY.

16

Name the two types of carbohydrates?

Starchy carbohydrates & Sugar sources.

17

Explain Starchy carbohydrates?

SC needs to be broken down into sugar molecules before they can be used for energy so are known as 'SLOW RELEASE ENERGY'

bread, pasta, potatoes, cereal, beans

18

Explain Sugar sources?

Sugars can be digested quickly so provide instant energy.

sweets, ice-cream, cakes fizzy juice, jam

19

Explain the effect of too much carbohydrates?

Excess carbohydrates are converted to fat and stored in the body so you are at risk of obesity.

*Obesity puts the body at risk of CHD, strokes, bowel disease, arthritis and cancer.

20

Explain the effect of too little carbohydrates?

If you don't have enough carbohydrates you will lack energy, feel tired, lethargic and listless.

You may also lose weight.

21

What is the function of Calcium?

Calcium helps blood to clot.

Calcium combines with phosphorous to make calcium phosphate - this makes teeth and bones strong.

22

Name some sources of calcium?

milk, cheese, yogurt, leafy green veg and calcium fortified products (soya milk)

23

Explain the effect of to much calcium?

This is good because it ensures we grow and maintain strong bones and teeth.

24

Explain the effect of too little calcium?

If you don't have enough calcium we may have weak bones (osteoporosis) and teeth.

This can lead to us developing dental caries (rotten teeth).

25

What is the function of Iron?

Iron is needed in the body to form HAEMOGLOBIN which makes blood cells red and carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body

26

Name the sources of Iron?

Liver, meat, beans, nuts, dried fruit, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, soya flour and most DARK leafy veg.

27

Explain the effect of too much iron?

Prevents anemia

28

Explain the effect of too little iron?

If you don't have enough iron you can develop anemia.

This causes tiredness, lethargy and difficulty concertrating.

29

Who are most at risk of iron deficiency?

Pregnant women(blood is used for the baby) & teenage girls(blood is lost due to periods)

30

What is the function of sodium?

Maintain the correct concentration of body fluid. Required for correct muscle and nerve activity.

31

Name sources of sodium?

Bacon. salted crisps, cheese, ready meals, stock cubes, soy sauce.

32

Explain the effect of too much sodium?

Too much sodium can result in high blood pressure and strokes.

33

Explain the effect of too little sodium?

Too little sodium can result in muscle cramps.

34

What is the function of vitamin A?

-Necessary for good eyesight especially in dim light
-For normal growth in children
-ACE vitamin so reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer

35

Name some sources of vitamin A?

liver, cheese, margarine, carrots, spinach, oranges, eggs, oily fish

36

Explain the effect of too much vitamin A in pregnant women?

Too much vitamin A can be harmful and cause abnormalities in unborn babies so pregnant women should be careful not to eat too many vitamin A rich foods.

37

Explain the benefit of too much vitamin A?

Good vision in dim light and may reduce risk of CHD and certain cancers.

38

Explain the effect of too little vitamin A?

-poor eyesight in dim light
-poor growth in children
-higher risk of heart disease and cancer

39

What is the function of vitamin B?

To release energy from foods into body. Required for normal growth in children.

40

Name sources of vitamin B?

pork, bacon, liver, kidney, bread, potatoes, milk, youghurt

41

Explain the effect of too much vitamin B?

Lots of energy to take part in activites

42

Explain the effect of too little vitamin B?

Limited energy - feel tried. Poor growth in children.

43

What is the function of vitamin C?

-Helps to prevent infections
-Helps cuts and wounds
-Helps prevent heart disease and cancer

44

Name some sources of vitamin C?

oranges,lemons, blackcurrant, grapefruit, kiwi, cabbage, peppers

45

Explain the effect of too much vitamin C?

-Cuts and wounds heal quickly
-Reduced risk of CHD and certain cancers
-Reduced change of infections

46

Explain the effect of too little vitamin C?

-Slow healing cuts and wounds
-Higher risk of heart disease and cancer

47

What is the function of vitamin D?

-Helps develop strong bones and teeth
-Helps bones to heal quickly

48

Name some sources of vitamin D?

sunlight, oily fish, liver, fortified breakfast cereal

49

Explain the effect of too much vitamin D?

Strong bones and teeth

50

Explain the effect of too little vitamin D/

Weak bones and teeth. This means you are more at risk of developing dental caries (rotten teeth).

Lack of vitamin D will also lead to bones that are slow to heal

51

What is the function of water? - Not a nutrient essential to health

-To make all body fluids (urine,blood, tears)
-To remove waste from out body
-To aid digestion
-To regulate body temperature

52

Name some sources of water?

drinking water, fruit juice, tea, coffee, fruit, vegtables

53

When would we need more water?

When we are ill, during exercise, hot weather, when breastfeeding

54

Explain the effect of too much water?

Too much water can be dangerous as this can cause an imbalance of the body fluids. This can also cause a headache.

55

Explain the effect of too little water?

Too little water can cause dehydration, thirst. constipation, poor skin (acne) and headaches, decrease concentration levels.

56

What is the function of dietary fiber? - Not a nutrient essential to health

-To help digestive system work properly
-To help prevent constipation
-To help us feel fuller for longer which will stop us snacking so helps prevent obesity

57

Name some sources of dietary fiber?

wholemeal bread, wholegrain cereals, fruit with skins on, vegetables, brown pasta, brown rice

58

Explain the effect of too much dietary fiber?

Too much dietary fiber can lead to diarrhea and stomach pains

59

Explain the effect of too little dietary fiber?

Too little dietary fiber can cause hunger, constipation and bowel disease