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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (50):
1

Define etiology

The cause. Sequence of events leading to changes, abnormalities. What is the cause of the disease?

2

What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?

Signs - physical observations or measurements (pulse, BP, temp, RR) (physical exam)

Symptoms - What the patient says or feels (perceives) (pain, difficulty breathing/ SOB (dyspnea), dizziness. Hx.

3

How is a diagnosis made?

Evaluating the manifestations to determine the disease process

4

What is palliative treatment?

no cure.
relieve and manage symptoms

5

What 3 things may trigger inflammation?

chemical agents, trapped foreign substances, physical agents, pathogen organisms, allergens

6

Neutrophils

compose the greatest number of white blood cells

7

eosinophils

numbers increase in allergic reactions

8

basiphils

contain histamines, involved in allergic reaction, pirate out of the blood = now mast cells.

9

monocytes

largest in size of WBCs, large nucleus, migrate out of blood? now= macrophage

10

lymphocytes

compose 2nd greatest # of WBCs, more active in the immune process, attack by remembering chemical structure of foreign invader, release lymphotoxin and lymphokine.

11

Which white blood cells perform phagocytosis?

neutrophils, monocytes

12

What are the 4 phases of the inflammatory process?

1. histamine released, permeability & blood flow increased
2. neutrophil exudation
3. monocyte exudation
4. repair & restoration

13

What are the ways in which the inflammatory process may end

regeneration - replace destroyed tissue w/ the same kind of cells.
fibrosis: collagen fibers contract, drawing out surfaces together... scar tissue varies one of both can occur.

14

List the signs of inflammations

redness, swelling, heat, pain - local
fever, leukocytosis - general

15

How does chronic inflammation differ from acute.

Prolonged inflammation resulting from a persistent causative agent.

16

Describe treatments for inflammation

Drugs: NSAIDS - aspirin, Tylenol, Motrin, aleve - all reduce severity of process and its signs and symptoms.
steroids - inhibit severity of exudation and edema
antihistamines - decrease severity of inflammation when caused by allergy
antimicrobials - infectious inflammation
rest & gradual exercise
drainage of abscess

17

What cell types are involved in cell-mediated immunity

T Lymphocytes

18

Describe the cell -mediated immune process

activated lymphocytes
T lymphocytes
antigens

19

What type of cells are involved in humoral immunity?

B Lymphocytes

20

Described the humoral immune process

antibodies. B lymphocytes
Helper T's will be affected by HIV

21

What are the ways that immunity be acquired?

Active (own antibodies)
- natural exposure to infection agent
- artificial immunizations

Passive (made antibodies)
- natural maternal antibodies
- artificial antibodies from other sources

22

Type I hypersensitivity

asthma, hay fever, urticaria, angioedema

23

Type II hypersensitivity

cytotoxic

24

Type III hypersensitivity

immune complex causes inflammation & vast tissue destruction
-glomerulonephritis
-farmers lung
-rheumatic fever

25

Type IV hypersensitivity

cell mediated - contact dermatitis, transplant rejection, TB skin test

26

describe anaphylaxis

systemic release of histamine
low blood pressure
respiratory distress
swollen airways
a life threatening allergic reaction

27

What causes AIDS?

Human Immunodeficiency virus

28

How is AIDS spread

Transmitted via contaminated body fluids through unprotected sex: anal, oral, vaginal. Through birth & breastfeeding and sharing needles (IV drug use)
-blood
-semen
-vaginal secretions
-breast milk

29

Describe how AIDS affects the immune system.

HIV virus attaches to the CD4 receptor on T-helper lymphocytes
Replicates
normally t-helper lymphocytes.
activates b-cell lymphocytes
kills cells
spreads.
now: immune system is destroyed
Allows for opportunistic infections to proliferate and produce disease
Body is susceptible to infections, malignancies that a healthy immune system could easily combat

30

Define autoimmunity and give an example of auto-immune disease

An intolerance to self: individuals develop antibodies to their own tissues or self-antigens
lupus, rheumatoid arthiritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, scleroderma

31

4 abnormalities of cell growth

hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, neoplasia

32

hyperplasia

number of cells increases

33

hypertrophy

size of cells increases

34

metaplasia

replacement of one tissue type by another - can reflect pathologic process

35

neoplasia

increased cell proliferation - independent of a normal grown promoting stimulus

36

Benign tumors

non cancerous, localized to a tissue or organ
well defined: en capsulated
closely resemble cell of origin
remains confined: does not spread to other tissues
slow growth usually not fatal

37

malignant tumors

cancer, rapidly divide and invade normal tissue. able to metastasize
generate tumors at distant sites
malignant (CA) - very invasive with vague borders
cellular atipica
metastasis - spreads via blood or lymph
rapid growth
high fatality rate

38

name a benign tumor found in cartilage

chondroma

39

name a malignant tumor found in bone

osteosarcoma

40

give examples of each etiology of malignant neoplasia

Carcinogenfound in tar...benzopyrene

tobacco & smoking
occupation exposure
alcohol
drugs & medical procedures, etc.

41

What are the limitations/drawbacks to surgical treatment of malignancies?

basic modality of cancer treatment

42

What two types of treatment of malignancies are often combined?

radiation & chemotherapy

43

Down syndromes

trisomy - 21 - 3 copies of chromosome 21

44

klinefelter's syndrome

trisomy 21 XXY

45

turners syndrome

Monosomy - 23 females with single x

46

how do autosomal recessive disease usually occur

most autosomal recessive disease occur when heterozygotes mate.

47

give three examples of autosomal recessive disease

CF, Sickle cell anemia, phenylketonuria (PKU)

48

describe how sex-linked inherited disease usually occurs and give an example.

the defective allele is transmitted from mother to son on the X of the 23rd chromosome
hemophilia

49

what is the usual etiology for congenital defects

caused by anything that interferes with intrauterine development

50

do the offspring of parents with a congenital defect have a greater than usual chance of having the same congenital defect

is not passed on to further generations.