Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (50):
The cause. Sequence of events leading to changes, abnormalities. What is the cause of the disease?
What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?
Signs - physical observations or measurements (pulse, BP, temp, RR) (physical exam)
Symptoms - What the patient says or feels (perceives) (pain, difficulty breathing/ SOB (dyspnea), dizziness. Hx.
How is a diagnosis made?
Evaluating the manifestations to determine the disease process
What is palliative treatment?
relieve and manage symptoms
What 3 things may trigger inflammation?
chemical agents, trapped foreign substances, physical agents, pathogen organisms, allergens
compose the greatest number of white blood cells
numbers increase in allergic reactions
contain histamines, involved in allergic reaction, pirate out of the blood = now mast cells.
largest in size of WBCs, large nucleus, migrate out of blood? now= macrophage
compose 2nd greatest # of WBCs, more active in the immune process, attack by remembering chemical structure of foreign invader, release lymphotoxin and lymphokine.
Which white blood cells perform phagocytosis?
What are the 4 phases of the inflammatory process?
1. histamine released, permeability & blood flow increased
2. neutrophil exudation
3. monocyte exudation
4. repair & restoration
What are the ways in which the inflammatory process may end
regeneration - replace destroyed tissue w/ the same kind of cells.
fibrosis: collagen fibers contract, drawing out surfaces together... scar tissue varies one of both can occur.
List the signs of inflammations
redness, swelling, heat, pain - local
fever, leukocytosis - general
How does chronic inflammation differ from acute.
Prolonged inflammation resulting from a persistent causative agent.
Describe treatments for inflammation
Drugs: NSAIDS - aspirin, Tylenol, Motrin, aleve - all reduce severity of process and its signs and symptoms.
steroids - inhibit severity of exudation and edema
antihistamines - decrease severity of inflammation when caused by allergy
antimicrobials - infectious inflammation
rest & gradual exercise
drainage of abscess
What cell types are involved in cell-mediated immunity
Describe the cell -mediated immune process
What type of cells are involved in humoral immunity?
Described the humoral immune process
antibodies. B lymphocytes
Helper T's will be affected by HIV
What are the ways that immunity be acquired?
Active (own antibodies)
- natural exposure to infection agent
- artificial immunizations
Passive (made antibodies)
- natural maternal antibodies
- artificial antibodies from other sources
Type I hypersensitivity
asthma, hay fever, urticaria, angioedema
Type II hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity
immune complex causes inflammation & vast tissue destruction
Type IV hypersensitivity
cell mediated - contact dermatitis, transplant rejection, TB skin test
systemic release of histamine
low blood pressure
a life threatening allergic reaction
What causes AIDS?
Human Immunodeficiency virus
How is AIDS spread
Transmitted via contaminated body fluids through unprotected sex: anal, oral, vaginal. Through birth & breastfeeding and sharing needles (IV drug use)
Describe how AIDS affects the immune system.
HIV virus attaches to the CD4 receptor on T-helper lymphocytes
normally t-helper lymphocytes.
activates b-cell lymphocytes
now: immune system is destroyed
Allows for opportunistic infections to proliferate and produce disease
Body is susceptible to infections, malignancies that a healthy immune system could easily combat
Define autoimmunity and give an example of auto-immune disease
An intolerance to self: individuals develop antibodies to their own tissues or self-antigens
lupus, rheumatoid arthiritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, scleroderma
4 abnormalities of cell growth
hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, neoplasia
number of cells increases
size of cells increases
replacement of one tissue type by another - can reflect pathologic process
increased cell proliferation - independent of a normal grown promoting stimulus
non cancerous, localized to a tissue or organ
well defined: en capsulated
closely resemble cell of origin
remains confined: does not spread to other tissues
slow growth usually not fatal
cancer, rapidly divide and invade normal tissue. able to metastasize
generate tumors at distant sites
malignant (CA) - very invasive with vague borders
metastasis - spreads via blood or lymph
high fatality rate
name a benign tumor found in cartilage
name a malignant tumor found in bone
give examples of each etiology of malignant neoplasia
Carcinogenfound in tar...benzopyrene
tobacco & smoking
drugs & medical procedures, etc.
What are the limitations/drawbacks to surgical treatment of malignancies?
basic modality of cancer treatment
What two types of treatment of malignancies are often combined?
radiation & chemotherapy
trisomy - 21 - 3 copies of chromosome 21
trisomy 21 XXY
Monosomy - 23 females with single x
how do autosomal recessive disease usually occur
most autosomal recessive disease occur when heterozygotes mate.
give three examples of autosomal recessive disease
CF, Sickle cell anemia, phenylketonuria (PKU)
describe how sex-linked inherited disease usually occurs and give an example.
the defective allele is transmitted from mother to son on the X of the 23rd chromosome
what is the usual etiology for congenital defects
caused by anything that interferes with intrauterine development