Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (89):
a theoretical perspective that emphasizes the role of power and coercion in producing social order
Debunking refers to
looking behind the
facades of everyday
the variety of group experiences that result from the social structure of society.
refers to something that is based on careful and systematic observation
the period in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe characterized by faith in the ability of human reason to solve society’s problems.
analyses of women and men in society intended to improve women’s lives.
a theoretical perspective that interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society.
affect large numbers of people and have
their origins in the institutional arrangements and
history of a society.
a system of thought that regards scientific observation to be the highest form of knowledge.
the alteration of social interaction, social institutions, stratification systems, and elements of culture over time.
social pattern that is external to individuals.
the established and
organized systems of social behavior with a
particular and recognized purpose.
behavior between two or more people that is given meaning.
organized pattern of social relationships and
social institutions that together constitute
the ability to see the societal patterns that influence individual and group life.
a scientific way of thinking about
society and its influence on human groups.
a theoretical perspective claiming that people act toward things because of the meaning things have for them.
privately felt problems that spring
from events or feelings in a person’s life.
the process of understanding social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.
shared ideas held collectively by people within a given culture.
subcultures created as a reaction against the values of the dominant culture.
(alsoknownassocial capital) cultural resources that are socially designated as being worthy (such as knowledge of elite culture) and that give advantages to groups possessing such capital.
the transmission of cultural elements from one society or cultural group to another.
the pervasive and excessive influence of one culture throughout society.
the idea that something can be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it appears.
the complex system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a given group or society.
the delay in cultural adjustments to changing social conditions.
the feeling of disorientation that can come when one encounters a new or rapidly changed cultural situation.
the persistence of inequality in people’s access to electronic information.
the culture of the most powerful group in society.
the belief that one’s in-group is superior to all out-groups.
a technique for studying human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how individuals attempt to restore normalcy.
the general standards of behavior adhered to by a group.
the diffusion of a single culture throughout the world.
the written set of guidelines that define what is right and wrong in society.
channels of communication that are available to very wide segments of the population.
the objects created in a given society.
strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior.
the norms, laws, customs, ideas, and beliefs of a group of people.
the specific cultural expectations for how to act in a given situation.
the beliefs, practices, and objects that are part of everyday traditions.
the idea that the mass media reflect the values of the general population.
a theory that language determines other aspects of culture because language provides the categories through which social reality is defined and perceived.
the term used to refer to the vast networks of social interaction that new media have created.
a mechanism of social control that enforces norms.
thecultureofgroupswhose values and norms of behavior are somewhat different from those of the dominant culture.
thing or behavior to which people give meaning.
behavior that bring the most serious sanctions.
the abstract standards in a society or group that define ideal principles.
any abstract characteristic or attribute that has the potential to be measured.
theanalysisofmeanings in cultural artifacts such as books, songs, and other forms of cultural communication.
a method of collecting data that can determine whether something actually causes something else.
the degree of positive (direct) or negative (inverse) association between two variables.
covert participant observation
the form of participant observation wherein the observed individuals are not told that they are being studied.
a table that shows how the categories of two variables are related.
the systematic information that sociologists use to investigate research questions.
the process by which sociologists organize collected data to discover what patterns and uniformities are revealed.
a process whereby a researcher explains the true purpose of a research study to a subject (respondent); usually done after completion of the study.
the process of creating a specific research question about a focused point, based on a more general or universal principle.
the variable that is a presumed effect
research assessing the effect of policies and programs.
applying information obtained on a small sample of units (such as people) to a larger population of the units.
the effect of the research process itself on the groups or individuals being studied; hence, the act of studying them often itself changes them.
a statement about what one expects to find in research.
a variable that is the presumed cause of a particular resultt
something that points to or reflects an abstract concept.
the process of arriving at general conclusions from specific observations.
in covert participant observation research, a single group member who provides “inside” information about the group being studied.
a formal acknowledgment by research subjects (respondents) that they understand the purpose of the research and agree to be studied.
the sum of a set of values divided by the number of cases from which the values are obtained; an average.
the midpoint in a series of values that are arranged in numerical order.
the most frequently appearing score among a set of scores.
overt participant observation
the form of participant observation wherein the observed individuals are told that they are being studied.
a method whereby the sociologist becomes both a participant in the group being studied and a scientific observer of the group.
the number of parts per hundred.
a relatively large collection of people (or other unit) that a researcher studies and about which generalizations are made.
research that is somewhat less structured than quantitative research but that allows more depth of interpretation and nuance in what people say and do.
research that uses numerical analysis.
a sample that gives everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected.
parts per some number (for example, per 10,000; per 100,000).
the likelihood that a particular measure would produce the same results if the measure were repeated.
research that is repeated exactly, but on a different group of people at a different point in time.
the overall logic and strategy underlying a research project.
any subset of units from a population that a researcher studies.
thestepsinaresearch process, including observation, hypothesis testing, analysis of data, and generalization.
unanticipated, yet informative, results of a research study.
a false correlation between X and Y, produced by their relationship to some third variable (Z) rather than by a true causal relationship to each other.
the degree to which an indicator accurately measures or reflects a concept.