Unit 1: Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Autonomic Nervous System Physiology Deck (88):
1

L1: Ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic neurons for the sympathetic system

1:20-50

2

L1: Postganglionic parasympathetic neurons release ______, which binds at a ______ receptor.

ACh; muscarinic cholinergic (M1-M4)

3

L1: Postganglionic sympathetic neurons at end organs typically release ______, which binds at _____ receptors.

Norepinephrine; alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1

4

L1: Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons release ______, which binds at a _____ receptor.

ACh; N-N

5

L1: Preganglionic sympathetic neurons release _____, which binds at a _____ receptor.

ACh; N-N

6

L1: Ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic system

~1:1

7

L1: The adrenal medulla releases ______ into the circulation, which interacts at _____ receptors.

Epinephrine; adrenergic

8

L1: The dominant system determining tone is typically the ____, except in the ______.

PNS; vasculature

9

L2: _______ generally mediate decreased insulin release from the pancreas.

alpha-2

10

L2: _______ generally mediate increased insulin release from the pancreas

beta-2

11

L2: _______ generally mediate shakiness/tremors in skeletal muscles

beta-2

12

L2: _______ generally mediate smooth muscle relaxation of the GI tract.

beta-2

13

L2: _______ receptors generally meadiate bronchodilation.

beta-2

14

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate a decrease in heart rate, AV conduction rate, and inotropy.

muscarinic

15

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate bladder wall muscle relaxation and increased continence in the GU system

beta-3

16

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate bronchoconstriction.

muscarinic

17

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate ejaculation in the male GU system.

alpha-1

18

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate increased aqueous humor outflow (decreased intraocular pressure)

alpha-1 and muscarinic

19

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate increased glycogenolysis and increased blood glucose in the liver. (2)

beta-2

20

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate increased HR, AV conduction rate, and inotropy

beta-1

21

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate increased lipolysis in fat cells.

beta-3

22

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate increased production of aqueous humor.

beta-2

23

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate increased renin release

beta-1

24

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate increased secretions and motility in the GI tract.

muscarinic

25

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate miosis and accommodation in the eye.

muscarinic

26

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate mydriasis of the eye.

alpha-1

27

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate relaxation of sphincters in the GI and GU tracts.

muscarinic

28

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate smooth muscle relaxation of the GI tract.

alpha-2

29

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate sphincter constriction and increased continence in the GU system

alpha-1

30

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate uterine muscle wall relaxation.

beta-2

31

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate vasoconstriction of vasculature of the upper respiratory tract mucosa

alpha-1

32

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate vasoconstriction.

alpha-1

33

L2: _______ receptors generally mediate vasodilation.

beta-2 and muscarinic

34

L2: alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate ____ aqueous humor outflow (_____ intraocular pressure)

increased; decreased

35

L2: alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate ____ of the eye.

mydriasis

36

L2: alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate ______ in the male GU system.

ejaculation

37

L2: alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate sphincter ______ and _____ continence in the GU system

contraction; increased

38

L2: alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate vaso____ of vasculature of the upper respiratory tract mucosa

constriction

39

L2: alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate vaso_____.

constriction

40

L2: alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) _____ blood pressure by ______ the sympathetic output from the CNS

decrease; decreasing

41

L2: alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate _____ insulin release from the pancreas.

decreased

42

L2: alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate smooth muscle ______ of the GI tract.

relaxation

43

L2: beta-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate _____ HR, AV conduction rate, and inotropy

increased

44

L2: beta-1 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate _____ renin release

increased

45

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally meadiate broncho_____

dilation

46

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate _____ insulin release from the pancreas

increased

47

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate _____ production of aqueous humor.

increased

48

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate ______ in the liver. (2)

increased glycogenolysis; increased blood glucose

49

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate ______ in skeletal muscles

shakiness/tremors

50

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate smooth muscle ______ of the GI tract.

relaxation

51

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate uterine muscle wall _______.

relaxation

52

L2: beta-2 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate vaso_____.

dilation

53

L2: beta-3 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate ______ in fat cells.

increased lipolysis

54

L2: beta-3 adrenergic receptors (SNS) generally mediate bladder wall muscle _____ and _____ continence in the GU system

relaxation; increased

55

L2: Both the PNS and SNS systems stimulate saliva production, but PNS stimulates saliva that is _____, while SNS stimulates saliva that is ______.

Profuse/water; Scant/viscous

56

L2: In cutaneous tissue, mucous membranes, and splanchnic vasculature, ___-adrenergic input predominates

alpha-1

57

L2: In determining adrenergic inputs on blood pressure, ____ adrenergic receptors tend to decrease the blood pressure.

alpha-2 and beta-2

58

L2: In determining adrenergic inputs on blood pressure, ____ adrenergic receptors tend to increase the blood pressure.

alpha-1 and beta-1

59

L2: In renal vasculature vasoconstriction or vasodilation is determined by the balance of inputs from ___ and ___ receptors.

alpha-1 adrenergic and D1 dopaminergic

60

L2: Muscarinic receptors (PNS) generally mediate ____ flow of aqueous humor in the eye (_____ IOP)

increased; decreased

61

L2: Muscarinic receptors (PNS) generally mediate _____ in the eye. (2)

miosis and accommodation

62

L2: Muscarinic receptors (PNS) generally mediate _____ of sphincters in the GI and GU tracts.

relaxation

63

L2: Muscarinic receptors (PNS) generally mediate _____ secretions and motility in the GI tract.

increased

64

L2: Muscarinic receptors (PNS) generally mediate a ____ in heart rate, AV conduction rate, and inotropy.

decrease

65

L2: Muscarinic receptors (PNS) generally mediate broncho_______.

constriction

66

L2: Muscarinic receptors generally mediate vaso_______, resulting in _____ blood pressure

dilation; decreased

67

L2: Postganglionic sympathetic neurons in sweat glands release _____, which binds at _____ receptors.

ACh; muscarinic cholinergic

68

L2: Postganglionic sympathetic neurons in the renal vascular smooth muscle release _____, which interacts at _____ receptors.

Dopamine, D1

69

L3: What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation at the eye?

miosis, accommodation, and increased outflow of aqueous humor

70

L3: What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation at the GI and GU tracts?

Increased secretions and motility, relaxation of sphincters

71

L3: What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation at the heart?

Decrease HR, AV conduction, and inotropy

72

L3: What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation at the Lungs?

Bronchoconstriction

73

L3: What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation at the vasculature?

None; Vasculature has no PNS innervation

74

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

increase renin release (beta-1)

75

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on fat cells?

Increased lipolysis (beta-3)

76

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on insulin release?

major decrease (alpha-2) and minor increase (beta-2)

77

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on skeletal muscles?

Tremors/shaking (beta-2)

78

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the eye?

Mydriasis (alpha-1), increased production of aqueous humor (beta-2), increased aqueous outflow/decreased IOP (alpha-1)

79

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the GI tract?

Smooth muscle relaxation (alpha-2 and beta-2)

80

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the GU system?

sphincter contraction (alpha-1), bladder muscle relaxation (beta-3), and ejaculation (alpha-1)

81

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the liver?

Increased glycogenolysis and blood glucose (beta-2)

82

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on the lungs?

Bronchodilation (beta-2)

83

L3: What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on uterine muscle?

Relaxation (beta-2)

84

L4: Name the effects of alpha-1 receptors. (5)

vasoconstriction, mydriasis, increased aqueous humor flow, GU spincter contraction, ejaculation,

85

L4: Name the effects of alpha-2 receptors. (3)

decrease sympathetic output from the CNS, smooth muscle relaxation in the GI tract, decreased insulin release

86

L4: Name the effects of beta-1 receptors (4)

increased HR, increased AV conduction velocity, increased inotropy, increased renin release

87

L4: Name the effects of beta-2 receptors. (9)

vasodilation, bronchodilation, increased production of aqueous humor, relaxation of smooth muscle of the GI tract, uterine wall relaxation, shakiness/tremors in skeletal muscle, increased glycogenolysis, increased blood glucose, increased insulin release

88

L4: Name the effects of beta-3 receptors (2)

bladder wall relaxation, increased lipolysis