Unit 1: Congenital/Developmental Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Congenital/Developmental Disorders Deck (50):
1

L!: What pathologic process? Result from subependymal hemorrhage into the germinal matrix

Perinatal stroke

2

L1: What pathologic process? Occurs in birth trauma in which the infant's neck is distorted and carotid arteries are stretched

Perinatal stroke

3

L1: Which developmental definition/diagnosis? Acquired non-progressive motor disability, with spastic, dyskinetic/athetoid, and ataxic types

Cerebral Palsy

4

L1: Which developmental definition/diagnosis? Delays or abnormal function in social interaction, language used in social communication, or symbolic/imaginative play

Autism Spectrum Disorder

5

L1: Which developmental definition/diagnosis? Intellecutal functioning at least two standard deviations below the mean with limitations in at least two adaptive skill areas

Intellectual Disability

6

L1: Which developmental definition/diagnosis? Restricted repertoire of interests, behaviors, and activities

Autism Spectrum Disorder

7

L2: ______ fibers: homogenous, eosinophilic, elongated, or globular inclusions with a granular structure containing GFAP

Rosenthal

8

L2: Antibodies to GFAP are used to visualize _________.

Reactive astrocytes

9

L2: Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament fiber unique to ______ cells.

astrocyte

10

L2: How does the distribution of red (Type 1) and white (Type 2) muscle fibers change in denervation atrophy?

Regional segregation

11

L2: Onion bulbs may form in the process of _________.

Segmental Demyelination

12

L2: Spinal cord dysfunction from tethering commonly affects the control of _________.

Urinary continence

13

L2: What pathologic process? Abnormal filaments in perikaryon and neurofibrillary tangles

Alzheimer's Disease

14

L2: What pathologic process? Accumulation of CSF within the central canal

Mydromelia

15

L2: What pathologic process? Bilateral symmetric holes in the brain

Schizencephaly

16

L2: What pathologic process? Complete failure of primary neurulation

Cranioraschisis totalis

17

L2: What pathologic process? Complete or partial failure of the prosencephalon to cleave

Holoprosencephaly

18

L2: What pathologic process? Complex disorder associated with thoracolumbar myelomeningocele

Chiari II Malformation

19

L2: What pathologic process? CSF-filled cyst that breaks out of the central canal and dissects into the substance of the cord

Syringomelia

20

L2: What pathologic process? Cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, upward displacement of the tentorium, and hydrocephalus

Dandy-Walker Malformation

21

L2: What pathologic process? Defect in the skull with protrusion of the leptomeninges and sometimes brain tissue

Encephalocele

22

L2: What pathologic process? Destruction of tissue of virtually an entire cerebral hemisphere

Hydranencephaly

23

L2: What pathologic process? Ectoderm-lined track that can transgress the dura and allow communication between the skin and CSF

Dorsal dermal sinus tract

24

L2: What pathologic process? Elongation of cerebellar tonsils protruding through the foramen magnum and blocking CSF flow

Chiari I Malformation

25

L2: What pathologic process? Elongation of cerebellar vermis with protrusion through the foramen magnum and blockage of CSF flow

Chiari II Malformation

26

L2: What pathologic process? Epidermal layer covers a rostral neural tube defect

Encephalocele

27

L2: What pathologic process? Extension of a lipoma from the subcutaneous tissues to the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord

Lipomyelomeningocele

28

L2: What pathologic process? Failure of closure of the posterior neuropore, frequently in the lumbar region

Myelomeningocele

29

L2: What pathologic process? Failure of formation of the lateral ventricles and third ventricle

Holoprosencephaly

30

L2: What pathologic process? Failure of the rostral neuropore to close

Anencephaly

31

L2: What pathologic process? Forebrain fails to separate from cutaneous ectoderm, resulting in a cerebrovasculosa where the calvarium would have normally developed

Anencephaly

32

L2: What pathologic process? Frequently associated with facial defects, including cebocephaly, cyclopia, ethmocephaly, arhinia, coloboma of iris/retina, microphthalmus, premaxillary agenesis, facial clefts

Holoprosencephaly

33

L2: What pathologic process? Incomplete development of posterior cranial fossa and leakage of CSF leading to failure of ventricular system to develop and expand

Chiari II Malformation

34

L2: What pathologic process? Large unilateral hole in the brain

Porencephaly

35

L2: What pathologic process? Leading cause of cerebral palsy

Larger germinal matrix hemorrhages

36

L2: What pathologic process? Lewy Bodies

Parkinson's Disease

37

L2: What pathologic process? May cause mydromelia, syringomelia, and hydrocephalus

Chiari I Malformation

38

L2: What pathologic process? Neural placode and CSF leakage with no epidermal covering at the caudal end of the spinal cord

Myelomeningocele

39

L2: What pathologic process? Partial or complete absence of the cerebellar vermis

Dandy-Walker Malformation

40

L2: What pathologic process? Produces ulegyria (mushroom-shaped gyri)

Perinatal stroke

41

L2: What pathologic process? Risk of deformity can be reduced with maternal folate supplementation during pregnancy

Neural Tube Defects

42

L2: What pathologic process? Skin-covered CSF mass continuous with the CSF in the spinal canal

Meningocele

43

L2: What type of degeneration occurs following inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies?

Segmental Demyelination

44

L2: What type of degeneration occurs following trauma, nerve infarction, or neoplastic invasion?

Wallerian Degeneration

45

L2: Which developmental definition/diagnosis? Development below two standards of deviation below the mean for a child's age

Developmental Delay

46

L2: Which developmental definition/diagnosis? Severe chronic disability of an individual 5 years of age or older attributable to mental or physical impairment

Developmental Disability

47

L3: ______ staining visualizes cytoskeletal elements to study axons and dendritic processes of neurons

Bielschowsky (Silver)

48

L3: What is the response of astrocytes in forming a scar in the brain?

Hyperplasia and Hypertrophy

49

L4: Describe the features of chromatolysis. (4)

RER disaggregation, neuronal body balloons, nucleus displaced toward periphery, reversible

50

L4: Name the criteria for autism spectrum disorder.

Deficits in social communication/interaction, restricted patterns of behaviors/interests/activities, presentation in early childhood, symptoms limit and impair daily functioning