Flashcards in Unit 1- History and Approaches (2-4%) Deck (49):
Field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement ex: objective measurement of skills, knowledge, abilities
focus on treating individuals dealing with disabilities and problems that make living normal lives difficult
Someone who uses applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescent's behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents
Someone who studies people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
Someone who studies how psychological factors affect performance and how participation in sports and exercise affect psychological and physical factors
Medical field of psychology that treats psychological disorders often with prescription medication
Person who studies personality and it's variation among individuals
The study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.
Founded the evolutionary process of natural selection
Study of how we think
Developmental psychologist who pioneered theories of cognitive development of children
How we think
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Pioneered Humanistic Psychology
help people to cope with challenges and crises (including academic, vocational, and marital issues) and to improve their personal and social functioning.
study our changing abilities from womb to tomb
apply psychological principles to legal issues. They conduct research on the interface of law and psychology, help to create public policies related to mental health, help law enforcement agencies in criminal investigations, or assist in forensic consultation involving jury selection and deliberation research.
use psychology’s concepts and methods in the workplace to help organiza- tions and companies select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems.
investigate the relationship between neurological pro- cesses (structure and function of the brain) and behavior.
Focus on the contributions of other people and culture, learn through social interactions
assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders
the science of behavior and mental processes.
The examination or observation of ones own mental and emotional processes
The mind and body are separate, the mind can continue without the body
The mind and body are connected/ the brain is the mind
Plato and Descartes
Believed in Dualism and that knowledge was innate
Aristotle and Locke
Believe we gain knowledge through experience/ Locke coined "tablula rasa" or blank slate
school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Used introspection to search for the minds structural elements
Margaret Floy Washburn
The first women to receive a psychology PhD., Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind
Mentored by William James. Became a pioneering memory researcher and the first women to be president of the American Psychological Association
G. Stanley Hall
First president of the APA
A functionalist; considered the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings; he admitted Mary Calkins into his seminar
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
The study of conditioning. Famous for dog saliva experiments.
Science of behavior; demonstrated conditioned responses with "Little Albert"; conditioned fear
Behaviorist; rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior, with animal behaviors (pigeons and rats in skinner boxes)
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Pioneer of the Gestalt field of Psychology
Emphasis on the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied.
A set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Sigmund Freud
The psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memory.
Developed the influential psychoanalytic theory of personality. Emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconscious thought process affect our behavior.
Humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological needs
The field of study that examines the role of genetic and environmental influences on animal (including human) behavior.