Unit 1- History and Approaches (2-4%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1- History and Approaches (2-4%) Deck (49):
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Psychometrics

Field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement ex: objective measurement of skills, knowledge, abilities

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Rehabilitation Psychologists

focus on treating individuals dealing with disabilities and problems that make living normal lives difficult

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School Psychologists

Someone who uses applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescent's behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents

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Social Pyschologist

Someone who studies people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others

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Sports Psychologists

Someone who studies how psychological factors affect performance and how participation in sports and exercise affect psychological and physical factors

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Psychiatry

Medical field of psychology that treats psychological disorders often with prescription medication

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Personality Psychologists

Person who studies personality and it's variation among individuals

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Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.

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Charles Darwin

Founded the evolutionary process of natural selection

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Cognitive psychology

Study of how we think

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Jean Piaget

Developmental psychologist who pioneered theories of cognitive development of children

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Cognition

How we think

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Natural selection

The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

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Carl Rogers

Pioneered Humanistic Psychology

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Counseling Psychologists

help people to cope with challenges and crises (including academic, vocational, and marital issues) and to improve their personal and social functioning.

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Developmental Psychologists

study our changing abilities from womb to tomb

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Forensic Psychologists

apply psychological principles to legal issues. They conduct research on the interface of law and psychology, help to create public policies related to mental health, help law enforcement agencies in criminal investigations, or assist in forensic consultation involving jury selection and deliberation research.

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Industrial/Organizational Psychologists

use psychology’s concepts and methods in the workplace to help organiza- tions and companies select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems.

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Neuropsychologists

investigate the relationship between neurological pro- cesses (structure and function of the brain) and behavior.

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Sociocultural Approach

Focus on the contributions of other people and culture, learn through social interactions

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Clinical Psychologists

assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders

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Psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes.

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Introspection

The examination or observation of ones own mental and emotional processes

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Dualism

The mind and body are separate, the mind can continue without the body

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Monism

The mind and body are connected/ the brain is the mind

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Plato and Descartes

Believed in Dualism and that knowledge was innate

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Aristotle and Locke

Believe we gain knowledge through experience/ Locke coined "tablula rasa" or blank slate

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Structuralism

school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.

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Functionalism

school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function

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Empiricism

The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.

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Nature-nurture issue

The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.

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Edward Titchener

Used introspection to search for the minds structural elements

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Margaret Floy Washburn

The first women to receive a psychology PhD., Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mind

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Mary Calkins

Mentored by William James. Became a pioneering memory researcher and the first women to be president of the American Psychological Association

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G. Stanley Hall

First president of the APA

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William James

A functionalist; considered the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings; he admitted Mary Calkins into his seminar

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Behaviorism

The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

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Ivan Pavlov

The study of conditioning. Famous for dog saliva experiments.

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John Watson

Science of behavior; demonstrated conditioned responses with "Little Albert"; conditioned fear

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B.F. Skinner

Behaviorist; rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior, with animal behaviors (pigeons and rats in skinner boxes)

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Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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Max Wertheimer

Pioneer of the Gestalt field of Psychology

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Humanism

Emphasis on the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied.

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Psychoanalysis

A set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Sigmund Freud

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Repression

The psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memory.

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Sigmund Freud

Developed the influential psychoanalytic theory of personality. Emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconscious thought process affect our behavior.

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Abraham Maslow

Humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological needs

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Behavioral Genetics

The field of study that examines the role of genetic and environmental influences on animal (including human) behavior.

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Free Will

The human ability to act freely, a focus of humanism. Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism minimized the emphasis on human free will.