Unit 1- Introduction to Human Physiology and Neurophysiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1- Introduction to Human Physiology and Neurophysiology Deck (237):
1

What are the characteristics of Living Organisms?

Organization
Acquire Materials and Energy from Environment
Grow and Develop
Reproduce
Respond to Stimuli
Homeostatic

2

What are the Levels of Organization?

Atom
Molecule
Macromolecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ System
Organism

3

Nutrients provide ____ for energy

Materials

4

Energy is....

The Capacity to do work

5

Work is needed to...

Maintain the organization of the cell and the organism, which is needed for growth, reproduction, and development

6

What is needed for chemical reactions to occur in the human body?

Oxygen, Water, and Proper Body Temperature

7

With proper nutrients and environment, what occurs?

Normal Growth and Development.

8

Life comes only from?

Life

9

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

10

Genes code for

Proteins

11

What is necessary for all life?

Proteins

12

Proteins are necessary for what type of reactions?

Metabolic reactions

13

Metabolism

Sum total of the chemical reactions occurring in the body cells

14

Stimulus

A Specific form of energy detected by receptors

15

What do Stimuli do?

Make an organism aware of its internal and external environments.

16

Receptors

Detect environmental stimuli

17

Integrators

receive information from receptors and determine response; integrators send information about a response to effectors.

18

Effectors

Generate a response to the original stimulus

19

Homeostasis

The maintenance of a constant internal environment within its tolerance limit.

20

Tolerance Limits

A Narrow range of conditions where cellular processes are able to function at a level consistent with continuation of life in response to changes in the internal and external environment

21

What are the 3 mechanisms involved in homeostasis?

Structural
Behavioral
Functional

22

Structural homeostatic maintenance

Physical features of the organism

23

Behavioral Homeostatic maintenance

Actions and interactions of the organism

24

Functional Homeostatic maintenance

Metabolism of organism (Cellular, Tissue Level, or Organ)

25

Homeostasis is a self-adjusting mechanism involving ______.

Feedback

26

Feedback Mechanisms

Occur when the response to a stimulus has an effect of some kind on the original stimulus.

27

Negative Feedback

When the response diminishes the original stimulus.

28

Example of a Negative feedback loop

Exercise creates metabolic heat which raises body temp. (stimulus), cooling mechanisms such as vasodilation and sweating (response), body temp. falls (decreasing original stimulus)

29

Positive Feedback

When the response enhances the original stimulus.

30

What type of feedback is more common?

Negative

31

Example of a Positive Feedback Loop?

Baby begins to suckle her mother’s nipple (stimulus), a few drops of milk are released (response), baby is encouraged and continues to suckle increasing milk released ( increasing original stimulus)

32

What systems control Homeostasis?

The Nervous System and the Endocrine System

33

What is the link between the Nervous system and the endocrine system?

The Hypothalamus

34

Both Homeostasis and _____ are endogenous systems responsible for maintaining the internal stability of an organism.

Allostasis

35

Allostasis Word Origin

Allostasis was coined similarly, from the Greek allo, which means "variable;" thus, "remaining stable by being variable

36

Homeostasis Word Origin

from the Greek homeo, means "same," while stasis means "stable;" thus, "remaining stable by staying the same

37

Allostatic Load

It's the price the body has to pay for either doing its job less efficiently or simply being overwhelmed by too many challenges

38

Allostatic Load

The physiological wear and tear on the body that results from ongoing adaptive efforts to maintain stability (homeostasis) in response to stressors

39

What are the 11 Organ Systems

Nervous
Reproductive
Nephro/Urine
Skeletal
Muscular
Lymphatic/Immune
Integumentary/Exocrine
Respiratory
Endocrine
Digestive

40

What are the parts of the Central Nervous System?

Brain
Spinal Cord

41

What are the parts of the Peripheral Nervous System?

Nerves
Ganglia
Sensory Division
Motor Division

42

What makes up the Sensory Division of the Peripheral Nervous System?

Visceral Sensory Division
Somatic Sensory Division

43

What makes up the Motor Division of the Peripheral Nervous System?

Visceral Motor Division
Somatic Motor Division

44

What makes up the Visceral Motor Division of the peripheral Motor Division of the Peripheral Nervous System?

Sympathetic Division
Parasympathetic Division

45

What are the 3 Types of Neurons?

Sensory (Afferent)
Interneurons
Motor (Efferent)

46

90% of our Neurons are _______

Interneurons

47

What is the function of Interneurons

Process, Store, and Retrieve information

48

Interneurons lie between the ______ and ____ Pathways in the Central Nervous System.

Sensory
Motor

49

Sensory (Afferent) Neurons

Conduct signals from receptors to the CNS

50

Interneurons (Association Neurons)

are confined to the CNS

51

Motor (Efferent) Neurons

Conduct signals from the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands.

52

Cell Body

Soma
Perikaryon

53

The structure of a Neuron includes a single, central _____ with a large _____

Nucleus
Nucleolus

54

The structure of a Neuron includes a cytoskeleton of ______ and _____ (bundles of actin filaments)

Microtubules
Neurofibrils

55

The Neuron's cytoskeleton compartmentalizes ____ into Nissl Bodies

RER

56

Lipofuscin

product of breakdown of worn-out organelles -- more with age

57

Neurons' structure includes a vast number of ____ for receiving signals

Dendrites

58

Neuron structure includes a single ____ arising from a hillock for rapid conduction

Axon

59

What are the variations in Neural Structure?

Multipolar
Bipolar
Unipolar
Anaxonic

60

What are the types of Neuroglial cells?

Ogliodendrocytes
Ependymal Cells
Microglia
Astrocytes

61

What is the general purpose of the Nervous System?

Receive, Transmit, and Interpret Stimuli

62

Example of the Nervous System receiving stimuli

Eyes

63

Example of the nervous System Transmitting Stimuli

Sensory and Motor Nerves

64

Example of the Nervous System Interpreting Stimuli

Brain or Spinal Cord

65

Example of the Nervous System Carrying out a decision

With the Muscles of the Arm.

66

What is the function of Neuroglial Cells

Support, protect, and Nourish Neurons

67

What is the most numerous type of cells in the nervous system?

Neuroglial Cells

68

What is the function of astrocytes?

Processes attach to neurons and their synaptic endings.
Cover nearby capillaries and anchor neurons to them.
Take up glucose from capillaries and deliver it to neurons as lactic acid.

Needed for synapse formation within the CNS.

Form the blood brain barrier.

Control the chemical environment around neurons by regulating K+ in the ECF, and recapturing and recycling neurotransmitters.

69

Microglia

Monitor health of Neurons

Can differentiate to macrophages when microorganisms are present

70

Ependymal Cells

Line Cavities of brain and spinal cord

Form permeable barrier between CSF and Interstitial fluid of the brain

71

Oligodendrocytes

Form Myelin Sheath
Make up white matter in the CNS

72

Schwann Cells

Form Myelin Sheath in the PNS

73

Satellite Cells

Support Cell Bodies of neurons in the PNS

Control Extracellular Fluid around Neurons

74

Name the Parts of a Neuron (And be able to label them)

Dendrites
Cell Body
Axon Hillock
Axon
Axon Terminal

75

Function of Dendrites

To receive the Neurotransmitter (Stimuli)
Convey Local Potentials to the cell body->Axon Hillock

76

Function of Nucleus in the Cell Body

Interpret Stimuli and be the Biosynthetic center of the cell

77

Axon Hillock Function

Generate Action Potentials

78

The Myelin Sheath in Neurons is composed of:

the cell membrane of the cell, and the neurilemma contains cell membrane, cytosol, and organelles

79

Function of the Axon

Conduct Action Potentials away from the cell body

80

Axon Terminal Function

secrete neurotransmitter substances

81

What are the three types of Neurons (Structural)

Multipolar
Unipolar
Bipolar

82

What is the most common structure of a Neuron?

Multipolar

83

What is the second most common structure of a Neuron?

Unipolar

84

Where are Bipolar Neurons found in the body?

Nasal Mucosa and Retina of the eye

85

The Plasma Membrane is more permeable to ___ Ions than any other ions and molecules.

K+

86

K+ Ions diffuse ____ the cell (Eflux) due to its concentration gradient (Chemical force)

Out of

87

K+ Ions are also acted upon by a ___ Force which draws K+ back into the cell due to the charged proteins and phosphate groups in the ICF

Electrical

88

If the cell were only permeable to K+ Ions, the cell would be at equlibrium potential at _____

-90mV

89

K+ ions are moving through ____-_____ ion channels ___ of the cell

Non-Gated
Out

90

Na+ Ions move ___ the cell (influx) due to the concentration gradient

Into

91

If the cell were only permeable to Na+ ions, the equilibrium potential would be

60mV

92

N and K Concentrations

K+ moves out (Eflux)
Na+ moves in (Influx)

93

What is the Nernst Equation

Allows the theoretical membrane potential to be calculated for a particular Ion

94

Resting Membrane Potential of the Neuron is

-70mV

95

What is the function of Na/K Pump?

Maintains the Ion concentration and Resting Membrane Potential.

96

In the Na/K Pump, for every 3 Na+ ions pumped out of the cell, how many K+Ions are pumped into the cell.

2

97

The Na/K Pump is active transport which requires ___ because it pumps against ion gradients

Energy

98

the Na/K Pump is responsible for ___ to ___ mV of the Resting Membrane Potential

5-15 mV

99

Association Neuron (Interneuron)

Multipolar Neuron located entirely within the CNS

100

Sensory Neuron (Afferent Neuron)

Neuron that transmits impulses from a sensory receptor into the CNS

101

Motor Neuron (Efferent Neuron)

Neuron that transmits impulses from the CNS to an Effector Organ (Like a muscle)

102

Nerve

Cablelike collection of many axons in the PNS; may be mixed

103

Somatic Motor Nerve

Nerve that stimulates contraction of Skeletal Muscles

104

Autonomic Motor Nerve

Nerve that stimulates contraction (Or inhibits contractions) of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and that stimulates glandular secretion

105

Ganglion

grouping of Neuron bodies located outside the CNS

106

What is the difference between Schwann Cells and Oligodendrocytes?

Oligodendrocytes myelinate neurons in the CNS while Schwann cells myelinate neurons in the PNS.

107

Action Potential

a sequence of rapidly occurring electrical events that reverse the MEMBRANE’S RESTING POTENTIAL

108

How is the Action Potential reached?

1. Local Potentials must reach the axon hillock
2. Local Potentials must produce enough depolarization to reach the threshold voltage of the neuron

109

Action Potentials begin in the

Axon Hillock

110

Na+ AND K+ Voltage-gated channels produce the ____ _____ along the axon of the neuron.

Action Potential

111

What are the electrical effects of

Depolarization
Repolarization
Hyperpolarization

112

In the resting state of a cell, what is the state of the Na+ and k+ gated channels?

Na+ Closed
K+ Closed

113

In Depolarization of a cell, what is the status of the Na+ and K+ gated channels?

Na+ Voltage gated channels are open and move into the cell.
K+ Gates are closed

114

What is the point at which K+ gates open and Na+ gates close?

+30 mV

115

What is the state when K+ Gates open and Na+ gates close?

Repolarization

116

Hyperpolarization Voltage gate states

Na+ Gates closed
K+ Gates open
K+ keeps moving in the cell to push past (Below) -70mV

117

Refractory Period

The period of time during which an excitable cell cannot generate another action potential

118

Absolute Refractory Period

no stimulus, regardless of its strength can produce an action potential

119

Relative refractory period

A greater than normal stimulus is necessary to cause an action potential

120

What factors impact the velocity of the Action Potential transmission?

Diameter of the Axon
Presence (Or Lack of ) Myelin

121

In a myelinated Axon, the Action Potential is regenerated where?

The Nodes of Ranvier

122

What is the Node of Ranvier?

Spaces between the Myelin Sheath (either Oligodendrocytes or Schwann Cells)

123

What are the 3 classifications of Axons Based on their Speed of Conduction?

A,B,C

124

What type of Axon fibers have the largest diameter?

A Fibers

125

True or False: A Fibers are always Myelinated?

TRUE

126

What is the conduction speed of "A" Fibers?

120-130 M/Sec

127

What is an example of a type "A" Fiber?

Motor Neuron which innervate Skeletal Muscle

128

B Fibers have axon Diameters of 2-3 microns and (are/Are Not) Myelinated

ARE

129

What is the conduction speed of B Fibers

15 m/sec

130

B Fibers are associated with sensory impulses from the viscera to the ____ and ____ _____

Brain
Spinal Cord

131

B Fibers are associated the Autonomic Nervous System from the CNS to the _______ ______.

Autonomic Ganglia

132

C Fibers are associated with Pain Impulses from

Viscera and some somatic sensations

133

C Fibers are associated with ANS motor Neurons from the _____ to the Effects

Ganglia

134

What does the Autonomic Nervous System Manage?

Involuntary Body Function

135

What types of organs, muscles and glands are managed by the ANS?

Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Glands

136

How does the ANS regulate Cardac Muscle?

Heart Rate
Heart Amplitude

137

How does the ANS regulate Smooth Muscle

Blood Vessel Diameter
Digestive Tract Movement

138

How does the ANS regulate Glands

Secretion

139

The ANS has __ neuron (s) in its efferent pathway

2

140

The Preganglionic Neuron in the ANS

Has the Cell Body in the CNS

141

The Postganglionic Neuron in the ANS

Has the Cell Body in a Ganglion and extends from the ganglion to the target tissue

142

Cholinergic Synapses release what neeurotransmitter into the Synaptic cleft?

Acetyl Choline

143

Adrenergic Synapses release what neurotransmitter into the Synaptic Cleft?

Norepinephrine

144

The synapse between the somatic motor neuron and skeletal muscle is what type?

Cholinergic

145

The synapse between the parasympathetic preganglionic neuron and the postganglionic neuron is what type?

Cholinergic

146

The synapse between the parasympathetic postganglionic neuron and the target organ is what type of synapse?

Adrenergic

147

What is the receptor used in cholinergic synapses between the somatic motor neuron and the skeletal muscle?

Nicontinic

148

What type of synapse is between the preganglionic neuron in the sympathetic nervous system and the postganglionic neuron? What is the receptor used

Cholinergic
Nicotinic

149

What types of synapses in the sympathetic nervous system us between the Postganglionic neuron and the Target organs?

Alpha 1
Beta1
Alpha 2
Beta 2

150

The sympathetic nervous system runs between which vertebrae?

T1 to L2

151

What type of synapse in the parasympathetic nervous system is between the postganglionic neuron and the target organ? What neurotransmitter is released? What type of receptor is present in the synaptic cleft?

Cholinergic
Acetyl Choline
Muscarinic Receptor

152

What is the function of Alpha receptors int he symathetic nervous system?

Contract smoth muscle

153

What is the function of beta receptors in the synmpathetic nervous system?

Relax Smooth Muscle

154

Where are Alpha 1 receptors typically located in the body?

Most blood vessels

155

Where are Alpha 2 receptors typically located in the body

Platelet membranes

156

Where are Beta 1 receptors typically located in the body?

Cardiac Muscle

157

Where are Beta 2 receptors typically located in the body?

Smooth muscle of Coronary Arteries, Bronchioles, Urinary, and Digestive Walls

158

What is an effect of an Alpha 1 receptor?

Dilates Pupils

159

What is an effect of Alpha 2 Receptor in the body?

Increased Blood Clotting

160

?What is an effect of the Beta 1 receptor in the body?

Inrease Heart Rate
Increase strength of contraction

161

What is an effect of the Beta 2 receptor in the body?

Relax smooth muscle in organ walls
Bronchioles relaxed gives more air

162

Drugs that promote neurotransmitter actions are called

Agonists

163

Drugs that inhibit (block) Neurotransmitter actions are called

Antagonists

164

Adrenergic blockers

Block Epinephrine and norepinephrine

165

Alpha one blocker example and function

Phentolamine
Decreases Blood pressure

166

Sympathetic Division is known for

Fight or Flight

167

Parasympathetic division is known for

Diges t and rest

168

Sypathetic division upsets what

Homeostasis

169

Parasympathetic division pmromotes what

Homeostasis

170

Thoracolumbar division

T1 to L2

171

Paraverebral Ganglia

Sympathetic chain parallel to the spinal cord which has internconnected ganglia

172

Ca2+ is high

outside the Cell

173

Ca2+ is low

Inside the Cell

174

True or False: Neurotransmitters enter the taaret cell

False: The nerutransmitter binds to the taret cell's recepotrs in the synaptic cleft t spark the local potential in the post ganglionic cell

175

What are te postganglion ic neurons that do not synase in the sympathetic chain>?

Collateral Ganglia

176

Where is the parasympatheric nervous system located?

Craniosacral region: Brain stem and S2-S4

177

Parasympathetic division has long _____ neyrons whihc prignate in the brains tem

Preganglionic

178

Parasymapthetic ivision has short _____ neurons which terminate next to or insude?

Postganglionic
Target ORgans

179

What nerve carries most preganglionic fiers to the body's organs?

Vagus Nerve

180

The s2-s4 nerves innervate those not done bt the

Vagus Nerve

181

Preganglionic neurons are always

Myelinated

182

Ganglion chains are locate in what division

Sympathetic Nervous system

183

What is an ecample of a Beta 1 blocker and what is its function?

Atenolol
Decreases Heart Rate

184

What is the function of a Nicoitinic Cholinergic Blocker?

Block nicotinic receptrirs for Ach

185

What is an example of a Nicotinic Cholinergic Blocker and what is its function?

Curare

Neuromuscular Blocking aent used for relaxation paralysis

186

What type of drug is used for diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis?

Nicotinic Cholinergic Blocker (Curare)

187

What is the function of Muscarinic Cholinergic Blockers?

Block Muscarinic Receptors for Ach

188

What is an example of a MUscarinic Cholinergic Blocker? What is its function?

Atropene
Dialates Pupils
Decrease salivation
Decrease respiratory secretions

189

Atropene blocks what receptor to increase heart rate to normal?

M2

190

Most organs have dual innervation from both the

Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system

191

Effects of Dual innervation are usually

Antagonistic

192

Purpose of the Action Potential

Produce a change in the axon terminal o vesicles with neurotransmitters move to the membrane

193

What are the Components fo the Action Potentials in a Neuron?

Voltage-Gated Sodm channels
Voltage-Gated potassium channels
Sodium and potassium gradients
Sodium Potassium Pump

194

Local Potentials are generated by hwhat

EPSP or IPSP

195

What is the function of the Axon Hillock

Collect Local Potentials to activate Action Potentials

196

What is the function of the Nodes of Ranvier

Reactivate local potentials between the myekination of Schwann cells or ologodendrcytes

197

Resting Membrane Potential

-70Mv

198

At resing Membrane Potential, Both K and Na Gates are

Closed

199

Component of the Action Potential

Resting Membrane Potential
Depolarization
Repolarization
Hyperpolarization

200

at -55 Mv, what occurs

Dpolarization occurs and Na+ Voltage regulated channesl open and NA+ ions enter the cell

Inside of membrane becomes more positive
K

201

At 30+ mv, what occurs in the cell?

Na C channel closes and + Opens
K+ os leaving the cell driving the cell fown towards RMP
Inside of membrane becomes ess positive

202

Hyperpolarization

Na+ gates are cloased
K+ is open, driving cell below RMP

203

Action Potental at the Hillock and Axon terminal must all be the sae ____ and ____ to function

Amplitude and Strength

204

True or False: Local Potentials regernerate?

False: Local potentials fo not rgenerate. They are overcome with temporal and spatial summation

205

Refractory Period

The period of time wit

206

True or False: Local Potentials regernerate?

False: Local potentials fo not regenerate. They are overcome with temporal and spatial summation

207

Refractory Period

The period of time which an excitable cell cannot generate another action potential. Prevents it from moving backwards through the axon

208

Absolute refractory oeruiod

No stmulus, regardless of its strength can produce an action potential

Due to inactivated SodiumChannels

209

Relative refractory Period

A reater than normal stimulus is necessary to cuase an action potential

Due to continued outard diffusion of K+

210

ypoerpolarization

The membrane reuturns to MP by sing non-gated cahnnel proteins and the Na+K+ Pump, which uses ATP. (Always ensuring gradients are estabished)

211

Hyperpolariatin kees what form happening

Action Potential goning int he opposite direction

212

Speed of action potentials depends on what?

Myelination

213

What are the 3 types of fibers in myelination?

A,B,C

214

Ligand

A Protein that binds to a pcoket on the gated channel (Neurotransmitter)

215

The Na/K Pump can only change the potential by

5-15 Mv

216

Function of the Myelin sheath

Help run the action potential faster

217

The axon Hillock myst receive enough positive charges from ____ if action potential is to form

EPSP

218

The plasma membrane is more poermeable to ___ ions than any other ions or molecules

K+

219

Na+ Ions are also attracted to the ___ groups and negatively charged ions inside the cell via its concentration gradient
and electrical atraction force

Phosphate groups

220

If K+ was by itself in the mebrane w no other ions, the potential would only reach

-90mv

221

The Na+ gradient of -20 Mv headded with the K9 gradient of -90 Mv helps reach RMP of

-70 Mv

222

Na is _______ less permeable in the membrane than K+ Ions

25-40%

223

K+ Moves ___ of the Cell

Out (Efflux)

224

Na+ Moves ____ of the cell

In (Influx)

225

Channel Proteins are one way. Why?

Because going against the gradient is active trasnport and requires energy

226

Sodium Potassium Pump takes ___ Na and moves them ___ the cell

3
Outside

227

Sodium potassium Punmp takes ___ K+ and mvoes them ____ the Cell

2
Inside

228

What is the purpose of the Nerst equation

to measure the theoretical Membrane potential for one Ion.

229

Anything dissolved in water has a _____.

Charge

230

Cholerterol rovides ____ ____ n the plasma membrane

Structural Support

231

Intracellular FLuid includes

K+ Phosphate groups
Negatively charged poteins

232

Extraellylar fluid contains

Na+ Cl- HCO3-
Ca2+

233

What is interstitial Fluid

Fluid in h the tissue surrounding the cell

234

RMP is initally established int he uterus as the fetus develops a

Nervous system

235

Fnction of the nervous systmem

Ti receue, trasnmit, and interpret stimuli

236

Afferent Pathays Go

In

237

Efferent Pathways goI

Out