Flashcards in Unit 1- Introduction to Human Physiology and Neurophysiology Deck (237):
What are the characteristics of Living Organisms?
Acquire Materials and Energy from Environment
Grow and Develop
Respond to Stimuli
What are the Levels of Organization?
Nutrients provide ____ for energy
The Capacity to do work
Work is needed to...
Maintain the organization of the cell and the organism, which is needed for growth, reproduction, and development
What is needed for chemical reactions to occur in the human body?
Oxygen, Water, and Proper Body Temperature
With proper nutrients and environment, what occurs?
Normal Growth and Development.
Life comes only from?
Genes code for
What is necessary for all life?
Proteins are necessary for what type of reactions?
Sum total of the chemical reactions occurring in the body cells
A Specific form of energy detected by receptors
What do Stimuli do?
Make an organism aware of its internal and external environments.
Detect environmental stimuli
receive information from receptors and determine response; integrators send information about a response to effectors.
Generate a response to the original stimulus
The maintenance of a constant internal environment within its tolerance limit.
A Narrow range of conditions where cellular processes are able to function at a level consistent with continuation of life in response to changes in the internal and external environment
What are the 3 mechanisms involved in homeostasis?
Structural homeostatic maintenance
Physical features of the organism
Behavioral Homeostatic maintenance
Actions and interactions of the organism
Functional Homeostatic maintenance
Metabolism of organism (Cellular, Tissue Level, or Organ)
Homeostasis is a self-adjusting mechanism involving ______.
Occur when the response to a stimulus has an effect of some kind on the original stimulus.
When the response diminishes the original stimulus.
Example of a Negative feedback loop
Exercise creates metabolic heat which raises body temp. (stimulus), cooling mechanisms such as vasodilation and sweating (response), body temp. falls (decreasing original stimulus)
When the response enhances the original stimulus.
What type of feedback is more common?
Example of a Positive Feedback Loop?
Baby begins to suckle her mother’s nipple (stimulus), a few drops of milk are released (response), baby is encouraged and continues to suckle increasing milk released ( increasing original stimulus)
What systems control Homeostasis?
The Nervous System and the Endocrine System
What is the link between the Nervous system and the endocrine system?
Both Homeostasis and _____ are endogenous systems responsible for maintaining the internal stability of an organism.
Allostasis Word Origin
Allostasis was coined similarly, from the Greek allo, which means "variable;" thus, "remaining stable by being variable
Homeostasis Word Origin
from the Greek homeo, means "same," while stasis means "stable;" thus, "remaining stable by staying the same
It's the price the body has to pay for either doing its job less efficiently or simply being overwhelmed by too many challenges
The physiological wear and tear on the body that results from ongoing adaptive efforts to maintain stability (homeostasis) in response to stressors
What are the 11 Organ Systems
What are the parts of the Central Nervous System?
What are the parts of the Peripheral Nervous System?
What makes up the Sensory Division of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Visceral Sensory Division
Somatic Sensory Division
What makes up the Motor Division of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Visceral Motor Division
Somatic Motor Division
What makes up the Visceral Motor Division of the peripheral Motor Division of the Peripheral Nervous System?
What are the 3 Types of Neurons?
90% of our Neurons are _______
What is the function of Interneurons
Process, Store, and Retrieve information
Interneurons lie between the ______ and ____ Pathways in the Central Nervous System.
Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
Conduct signals from receptors to the CNS
Interneurons (Association Neurons)
are confined to the CNS
Motor (Efferent) Neurons
Conduct signals from the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands.
The structure of a Neuron includes a single, central _____ with a large _____
The structure of a Neuron includes a cytoskeleton of ______ and _____ (bundles of actin filaments)
The Neuron's cytoskeleton compartmentalizes ____ into Nissl Bodies
product of breakdown of worn-out organelles -- more with age
Neurons' structure includes a vast number of ____ for receiving signals
Neuron structure includes a single ____ arising from a hillock for rapid conduction
What are the variations in Neural Structure?
What are the types of Neuroglial cells?
What is the general purpose of the Nervous System?
Receive, Transmit, and Interpret Stimuli
Example of the Nervous System receiving stimuli
Example of the nervous System Transmitting Stimuli
Sensory and Motor Nerves
Example of the Nervous System Interpreting Stimuli
Brain or Spinal Cord
Example of the Nervous System Carrying out a decision
With the Muscles of the Arm.
What is the function of Neuroglial Cells
Support, protect, and Nourish Neurons
What is the most numerous type of cells in the nervous system?
What is the function of astrocytes?
Processes attach to neurons and their synaptic endings.
Cover nearby capillaries and anchor neurons to them.
Take up glucose from capillaries and deliver it to neurons as lactic acid.
Needed for synapse formation within the CNS.
Form the blood brain barrier.
Control the chemical environment around neurons by regulating K+ in the ECF, and recapturing and recycling neurotransmitters.
Monitor health of Neurons
Can differentiate to macrophages when microorganisms are present
Line Cavities of brain and spinal cord
Form permeable barrier between CSF and Interstitial fluid of the brain
Form Myelin Sheath
Make up white matter in the CNS
Form Myelin Sheath in the PNS
Support Cell Bodies of neurons in the PNS
Control Extracellular Fluid around Neurons
Name the Parts of a Neuron (And be able to label them)
Function of Dendrites
To receive the Neurotransmitter (Stimuli)
Convey Local Potentials to the cell body->Axon Hillock
Function of Nucleus in the Cell Body
Interpret Stimuli and be the Biosynthetic center of the cell
Axon Hillock Function
Generate Action Potentials
The Myelin Sheath in Neurons is composed of:
the cell membrane of the cell, and the neurilemma contains cell membrane, cytosol, and organelles
Function of the Axon
Conduct Action Potentials away from the cell body
Axon Terminal Function
secrete neurotransmitter substances
What are the three types of Neurons (Structural)
What is the most common structure of a Neuron?
What is the second most common structure of a Neuron?
Where are Bipolar Neurons found in the body?
Nasal Mucosa and Retina of the eye
The Plasma Membrane is more permeable to ___ Ions than any other ions and molecules.
K+ Ions diffuse ____ the cell (Eflux) due to its concentration gradient (Chemical force)
K+ Ions are also acted upon by a ___ Force which draws K+ back into the cell due to the charged proteins and phosphate groups in the ICF
If the cell were only permeable to K+ Ions, the cell would be at equlibrium potential at _____
K+ ions are moving through ____-_____ ion channels ___ of the cell
Na+ Ions move ___ the cell (influx) due to the concentration gradient
If the cell were only permeable to Na+ ions, the equilibrium potential would be
N and K Concentrations
K+ moves out (Eflux)
Na+ moves in (Influx)
What is the Nernst Equation
Allows the theoretical membrane potential to be calculated for a particular Ion
Resting Membrane Potential of the Neuron is
What is the function of Na/K Pump?
Maintains the Ion concentration and Resting Membrane Potential.
In the Na/K Pump, for every 3 Na+ ions pumped out of the cell, how many K+Ions are pumped into the cell.
The Na/K Pump is active transport which requires ___ because it pumps against ion gradients
the Na/K Pump is responsible for ___ to ___ mV of the Resting Membrane Potential
Association Neuron (Interneuron)
Multipolar Neuron located entirely within the CNS
Sensory Neuron (Afferent Neuron)
Neuron that transmits impulses from a sensory receptor into the CNS
Motor Neuron (Efferent Neuron)
Neuron that transmits impulses from the CNS to an Effector Organ (Like a muscle)
Cablelike collection of many axons in the PNS; may be mixed
Somatic Motor Nerve
Nerve that stimulates contraction of Skeletal Muscles
Autonomic Motor Nerve
Nerve that stimulates contraction (Or inhibits contractions) of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and that stimulates glandular secretion
grouping of Neuron bodies located outside the CNS
What is the difference between Schwann Cells and Oligodendrocytes?
Oligodendrocytes myelinate neurons in the CNS while Schwann cells myelinate neurons in the PNS.
a sequence of rapidly occurring electrical events that reverse the MEMBRANE’S RESTING POTENTIAL
How is the Action Potential reached?
1. Local Potentials must reach the axon hillock
2. Local Potentials must produce enough depolarization to reach the threshold voltage of the neuron
Action Potentials begin in the
Na+ AND K+ Voltage-gated channels produce the ____ _____ along the axon of the neuron.
What are the electrical effects of
In the resting state of a cell, what is the state of the Na+ and k+ gated channels?
In Depolarization of a cell, what is the status of the Na+ and K+ gated channels?
Na+ Voltage gated channels are open and move into the cell.
K+ Gates are closed
What is the point at which K+ gates open and Na+ gates close?
What is the state when K+ Gates open and Na+ gates close?
Hyperpolarization Voltage gate states
Na+ Gates closed
K+ Gates open
K+ keeps moving in the cell to push past (Below) -70mV
The period of time during which an excitable cell cannot generate another action potential
Absolute Refractory Period
no stimulus, regardless of its strength can produce an action potential
Relative refractory period
A greater than normal stimulus is necessary to cause an action potential
What factors impact the velocity of the Action Potential transmission?
Diameter of the Axon
Presence (Or Lack of ) Myelin
In a myelinated Axon, the Action Potential is regenerated where?
The Nodes of Ranvier
What is the Node of Ranvier?
Spaces between the Myelin Sheath (either Oligodendrocytes or Schwann Cells)
What are the 3 classifications of Axons Based on their Speed of Conduction?
What type of Axon fibers have the largest diameter?
True or False: A Fibers are always Myelinated?
What is the conduction speed of "A" Fibers?
What is an example of a type "A" Fiber?
Motor Neuron which innervate Skeletal Muscle
B Fibers have axon Diameters of 2-3 microns and (are/Are Not) Myelinated
What is the conduction speed of B Fibers
B Fibers are associated with sensory impulses from the viscera to the ____ and ____ _____
B Fibers are associated the Autonomic Nervous System from the CNS to the _______ ______.
C Fibers are associated with Pain Impulses from
Viscera and some somatic sensations
C Fibers are associated with ANS motor Neurons from the _____ to the Effects
What does the Autonomic Nervous System Manage?
Involuntary Body Function
What types of organs, muscles and glands are managed by the ANS?
How does the ANS regulate Cardac Muscle?
How does the ANS regulate Smooth Muscle
Blood Vessel Diameter
Digestive Tract Movement
How does the ANS regulate Glands
The ANS has __ neuron (s) in its efferent pathway
The Preganglionic Neuron in the ANS
Has the Cell Body in the CNS
The Postganglionic Neuron in the ANS
Has the Cell Body in a Ganglion and extends from the ganglion to the target tissue
Cholinergic Synapses release what neeurotransmitter into the Synaptic cleft?
Adrenergic Synapses release what neurotransmitter into the Synaptic Cleft?
The synapse between the somatic motor neuron and skeletal muscle is what type?
The synapse between the parasympathetic preganglionic neuron and the postganglionic neuron is what type?
The synapse between the parasympathetic postganglionic neuron and the target organ is what type of synapse?
What is the receptor used in cholinergic synapses between the somatic motor neuron and the skeletal muscle?
What type of synapse is between the preganglionic neuron in the sympathetic nervous system and the postganglionic neuron? What is the receptor used
What types of synapses in the sympathetic nervous system us between the Postganglionic neuron and the Target organs?
The sympathetic nervous system runs between which vertebrae?
T1 to L2
What type of synapse in the parasympathetic nervous system is between the postganglionic neuron and the target organ? What neurotransmitter is released? What type of receptor is present in the synaptic cleft?
What is the function of Alpha receptors int he symathetic nervous system?
Contract smoth muscle
What is the function of beta receptors in the synmpathetic nervous system?
Relax Smooth Muscle
Where are Alpha 1 receptors typically located in the body?
Most blood vessels
Where are Alpha 2 receptors typically located in the body
Where are Beta 1 receptors typically located in the body?
Where are Beta 2 receptors typically located in the body?
Smooth muscle of Coronary Arteries, Bronchioles, Urinary, and Digestive Walls
What is an effect of an Alpha 1 receptor?
What is an effect of Alpha 2 Receptor in the body?
Increased Blood Clotting
?What is an effect of the Beta 1 receptor in the body?
Inrease Heart Rate
Increase strength of contraction
What is an effect of the Beta 2 receptor in the body?
Relax smooth muscle in organ walls
Bronchioles relaxed gives more air
Drugs that promote neurotransmitter actions are called
Drugs that inhibit (block) Neurotransmitter actions are called
Block Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Alpha one blocker example and function
Decreases Blood pressure
Sympathetic Division is known for
Fight or Flight
Parasympathetic division is known for
Diges t and rest
Sypathetic division upsets what
Parasympathetic division pmromotes what
T1 to L2
Sympathetic chain parallel to the spinal cord which has internconnected ganglia
Ca2+ is high
outside the Cell
Ca2+ is low
Inside the Cell
True or False: Neurotransmitters enter the taaret cell
False: The nerutransmitter binds to the taret cell's recepotrs in the synaptic cleft t spark the local potential in the post ganglionic cell
What are te postganglion ic neurons that do not synase in the sympathetic chain>?
Where is the parasympatheric nervous system located?
Craniosacral region: Brain stem and S2-S4
Parasympathetic division has long _____ neyrons whihc prignate in the brains tem
Parasymapthetic ivision has short _____ neurons which terminate next to or insude?
What nerve carries most preganglionic fiers to the body's organs?
The s2-s4 nerves innervate those not done bt the
Preganglionic neurons are always
Ganglion chains are locate in what division
Sympathetic Nervous system
What is an ecample of a Beta 1 blocker and what is its function?
Decreases Heart Rate
What is the function of a Nicoitinic Cholinergic Blocker?
Block nicotinic receptrirs for Ach
What is an example of a Nicotinic Cholinergic Blocker and what is its function?
Neuromuscular Blocking aent used for relaxation paralysis
What type of drug is used for diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis?
Nicotinic Cholinergic Blocker (Curare)
What is the function of Muscarinic Cholinergic Blockers?
Block Muscarinic Receptors for Ach
What is an example of a MUscarinic Cholinergic Blocker? What is its function?
Decrease respiratory secretions
Atropene blocks what receptor to increase heart rate to normal?
Most organs have dual innervation from both the
Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system
Effects of Dual innervation are usually
Purpose of the Action Potential
Produce a change in the axon terminal o vesicles with neurotransmitters move to the membrane
What are the Components fo the Action Potentials in a Neuron?
Voltage-Gated Sodm channels
Voltage-Gated potassium channels
Sodium and potassium gradients
Sodium Potassium Pump
Local Potentials are generated by hwhat
EPSP or IPSP
What is the function of the Axon Hillock
Collect Local Potentials to activate Action Potentials
What is the function of the Nodes of Ranvier
Reactivate local potentials between the myekination of Schwann cells or ologodendrcytes
Resting Membrane Potential
At resing Membrane Potential, Both K and Na Gates are
Component of the Action Potential
Resting Membrane Potential
at -55 Mv, what occurs
Dpolarization occurs and Na+ Voltage regulated channesl open and NA+ ions enter the cell
Inside of membrane becomes more positive
At 30+ mv, what occurs in the cell?
Na C channel closes and + Opens
K+ os leaving the cell driving the cell fown towards RMP
Inside of membrane becomes ess positive
Na+ gates are cloased
K+ is open, driving cell below RMP
Action Potental at the Hillock and Axon terminal must all be the sae ____ and ____ to function
Amplitude and Strength
True or False: Local Potentials regernerate?
False: Local potentials fo not rgenerate. They are overcome with temporal and spatial summation
The period of time wit
True or False: Local Potentials regernerate?
False: Local potentials fo not regenerate. They are overcome with temporal and spatial summation
The period of time which an excitable cell cannot generate another action potential. Prevents it from moving backwards through the axon
Absolute refractory oeruiod
No stmulus, regardless of its strength can produce an action potential
Due to inactivated SodiumChannels
Relative refractory Period
A reater than normal stimulus is necessary to cuase an action potential
Due to continued outard diffusion of K+
The membrane reuturns to MP by sing non-gated cahnnel proteins and the Na+K+ Pump, which uses ATP. (Always ensuring gradients are estabished)
Hyperpolariatin kees what form happening
Action Potential goning int he opposite direction
Speed of action potentials depends on what?
What are the 3 types of fibers in myelination?
A Protein that binds to a pcoket on the gated channel (Neurotransmitter)
The Na/K Pump can only change the potential by
Function of the Myelin sheath
Help run the action potential faster
The axon Hillock myst receive enough positive charges from ____ if action potential is to form
The plasma membrane is more poermeable to ___ ions than any other ions or molecules
Na+ Ions are also attracted to the ___ groups and negatively charged ions inside the cell via its concentration gradient
and electrical atraction force
If K+ was by itself in the mebrane w no other ions, the potential would only reach
The Na+ gradient of -20 Mv headded with the K9 gradient of -90 Mv helps reach RMP of
Na is _______ less permeable in the membrane than K+ Ions
K+ Moves ___ of the Cell
Na+ Moves ____ of the cell
Channel Proteins are one way. Why?
Because going against the gradient is active trasnport and requires energy
Sodium Potassium Pump takes ___ Na and moves them ___ the cell
Sodium potassium Punmp takes ___ K+ and mvoes them ____ the Cell
What is the purpose of the Nerst equation
to measure the theoretical Membrane potential for one Ion.
Anything dissolved in water has a _____.
Cholerterol rovides ____ ____ n the plasma membrane
Intracellular FLuid includes
K+ Phosphate groups
Negatively charged poteins
Extraellylar fluid contains
Na+ Cl- HCO3-
What is interstitial Fluid
Fluid in h the tissue surrounding the cell
RMP is initally established int he uterus as the fetus develops a
Fnction of the nervous systmem
Ti receue, trasnmit, and interpret stimuli
Afferent Pathays Go