Unit 1 Motivating Operations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 Motivating Operations Deck (105):
1

An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event; and alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object, or event

Motivating Operation

2

A motivating operation that establishes the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a consequence (reinforcer or punisher).

EO

3

A motivating operation that decreases the effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a consequence (reinforcer or punisher).

AO

4

An increase in the momentary frequency of behavior.

Evocative effect

5

A decrease in the momentary frequency of behavior.

Abative effect

6

The effect of a stimulus on a specific response may be innate, due to the evolutionary history of that species.

Phylogenic provenance

7

The effect of the stimulus on a specific response may be learned, due to the experiential history of the individual organism in the environment.

Ontogenic provenance

8

MO related to reinforcement

MOSR

9

MO related to punishment

MOSP

10

EO related to reinforcement

EOSR

11

EO related to punishment

EOSP

12

AO related to reinforcement

AOSR

13

AO related to punishment

AOSP

14

EO related to positive reinforcement

EOSR+

15

EO related to negative reinforcement

EOSR-

16

A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history.

Condition motivating operations

17

Acquire the properties of an EO through contingent pairing with UEOs in much the same way that stimuli become S’s through pairing.

Surrogate CEO

18

Acquire the properties of an AO through contingent pairing with UAOs in much the same way that stimuli become S’s through pairing.

Surrogate CAO

19

An event that establishes another stimulus as a necessary condition to complete the response that the first event evokes, and thus establishes that second stimulus as a reinforcer.

Transitive CEO

20

Decrease in the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and abate behavior which is maintained by the reinforcer whose value has been lowered (decreased).

Transitive CAO

21

Establishes its own termination as an effective form of negative reinforcement or punishment.

Reflexive CEO

22

Abolishes its own termination as an effective form of negative reinforcement or punishment.

Reflexive CAO

23

An EO for negative reinforcement; evokes avoidance behavior and evokes behavior that has resulted in its own termination in the past.

Threat CEO-R

24

An AO for negative reinforcement; abates avoidance behavior and abated behavior that has resulted in its own termination in the past.

Threat CAO-R

25

An EO for negative punishment; abates behavior that has resulted in its own termination in the past.

Promise CEO-R

26

An AO for negative punishment; evokes behavior that has resulted in its own termination in the past.

Promise CAO-R

27

Behavior that terminates an aversive stimulus.

Escape

28

Terminates a “warning” stimulus; prevents r delays the onset of the aversive stimulus.

Avoidance

29

a response terminates a warning stimulus

signaled avoidance

30

A conditioned aversive stimulus whose presence is correlated with the upcoming onset of an unconditioned aversive stimulus

warning stimulus

31

No clear warning stimulus, but a response can still delay or prevent the occurrence of the aversive event.

unsignaled avoidance

32

the onset of painful stimulation establishes the reduction or offset of this stimulation as an effective form of reinforcement and evokes behavior that achieved such reduction or offset.

negative reinforcement

33

Define the term Motivating operation.
A) A consequential condition that alters the effectiveness of a consequence and has a momentary effect on a dimension of behavior
B) An antecedent condition that alters the effectiveness of a consequence and has a momentary effect on a dimension of behavior
C) An antecedent condition that alters the effectiveness of behavior and has a momentary effect on a discriminative stimulus
D) An antecedent that has an establishing or abolishing effect on behavior

B) An antecedent condition that alters the effectiveness of a consequence and has a momentary effect on a dimension of behavior

34

What type of value-altering effect does an Establishing Operation have?
A) Increases effectiveness of consequence
B) Decreases effectiveness of consequence
C) Increases the likelihood of the occurrence of the behavior
D) Decreases the likelihood of the occurrence of the behavior

A) Increases effectiveness of consequence

35

What type of effect does an abolishing operation have on a consequence (either reinforcement or punishment)?
A) This depends on whether the consequence is positive or negative
B) This depends on whether the consequence is reinforcement or punishment
C) It decreases the value of the consequence
D) It increases the value of the consequence

C) It decreases the value of the consequence

36

MOs are broadly classified based on whether their value-altering effect is:
A) Evocative or abative
B) Of phylogenic or ontogenic provenance
C) Related to an Sd or an S-delta
D) Strong or weak

B) Of phylogenic or ontogenic provenance

37

Name the four categories of MOs as related to provenance of the value-altering effect
A) OSp+, EOSp-, AOSp+, AOSp-
B) EOSr+, EOSr-, AOSr+, AOSr-
C) UEO, UAO, CEO, CAO
D) EOSr, AOSr, EOSp, AOSp

C) UEO, UAO, CEO, CAO

38

Which of the following terms would fall into one of the eight categorical divisions (without regard to division by provenance), which define an MO according to the type of consequence to which it is related (the consequence having its value altered).
A) EOSp-
B) CEO
C) UAO
D) AO

A) EOSp-

39

Classifying a motivating operation by its last name means classifying it according to:
A) Whether it is conditioned or unconditioned
B) Whether it is an abolishing or establishing operations
C) The consequence to which it is directly related
D) The environmental context in which it occurs

C) The consequence to which it is directly related

40

Select two effects of EOs related to reinforcement:
A) Reinforcer-establishing and abative effects
B) Reinforcer-abolishing and evocative effects
C) Reinforcer-abolishing and abative effects
D) Reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects

D) Reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects

41

When an antecedent stimulus decreases the effectiveness of a consequence’s strengthening effect on behavior, a(n) ___ effect occurred.
A) Reinforcer-establishing
B) Abative
C) Reinforcer-abolishing
D) Evocative

C) Reinforcer-abolishing

42

When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus decreases the likelihood of the occurrence of behavior that has been reinforced in the past, a(n) ___ effect can be said to have taken place.
A) Reinforcer-establishing
B) Abative
C) Evocative
D) Reinforcer-abolishing

B) Abative

43

An antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus can increase the value of other events as forms of reinforcement. This is referred to as a(n) ___ effect. In addition, the same antecedent can evoke the type of behavior that has been reinforced by particular consequential events in the past. This is referred to as a(n)___ effect.

A) Evocative; Reinforcer-establishing
B) Reinforcer-establishing; Evocative
C) Abative; Reinforcer-abolishing
D) Reinforcer-abolishing; Abative

B) Reinforcer-establishing; Evocative

44

Seeing that the battery is low on a lap top computer increases the value of a charger, and evokes the type of behavior that has resulted in getting a charger in the past. Which type of motivating operation does this exemplify?
A) Establishing operation for reinforcement
B) Abolishing operation for punishment
C) Establishing operation for punishment
D) Abolishing operation for reinforcement

A) Establishing operation for reinforcement

45

Being indoors when it is dark and warm decreases the value of wearing a hat, and abates looking for one. Which type of motivating operation does this scenario illustrate?
A) Abolishing operation for reinforcement
B) Establishing operation for reinforcement
C) Establishing operation for punishment
D) Abolishing operation for punishment

A) Abolishing operation for reinforcement

46

When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus increases the value of other events as forms of punishment, a(n) ___ effect can be said to have taken place.
A) Punisher-abolishing
B) Evocative
C) Punisher-establishing
D) Abative

C) Punisher-establishing

47

An antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus can increase the value of consequential events as forms of punishment. This is referred to as a(n) ___ effect. In addition, the same antecedent can reduce the likelihood of the type of behavior that has been punished by those consequences in the past. This is referred to as a(n)___ effect.
A) Punisher-abolishing; Evocative
B) Abative; Punisher-establishing
C) Punisher-establishing; Abative
D) Evocative; Punisher-abolishing

C) Punisher-establishing; Abative

48

Select two effects of AOs related to punishment:
A) Punisher-abolishing and abative effects
B) Punisher-establishing and abative effects
C) Punisher-abolishing and evocative effects
D) Punisher-establishing and evocative effects

C) Punisher-abolishing and evocative effects

49

Derek earns about $23,000 per year. Early in his employment, he was suspended from work for two days without pay, due to his calling-in absent from work 3 times without a properly documented excuse. He was told that if it happened again within the year, he would be suspended for a full week, and if it occurred a third time, he would be fired. He has a lot of debt from school, and cannot afford to lose any more pay—and in fact is constantly looking for overtime to increase his paycheck. Thus the suspension was very effective, and Derek has not called in absent from work in over 6 months. On Monday morning, Derek received a letter in the mail indicating that his great-uncle Scooter had died and left him more than $500,000 as an inheritance. The next day, Derek was out celebrating, and he called in absent from work that day “due to family issues”. What effect did the letter about his inheritance have on the effectiveness of suspension for “calling in absent to work”? The letter functioned as an…
A) Abolishing operation for positive reinforcement
B) Abolishing operation for punishment
C) Establishing operation for punishment
D) Establishing operation for negative reinforcement

B) Abolishing operation for punishment

50

Charlie hears that a movie he has been waiting for (for months) is finally coming out on Friday night. This increases the value of getting grounded by his parents (forced to stay home – except for school – for a certain period of time). It also abates the type of behavior that has resulted in Charlie getting grounded in the past. Which type of motivating operations does Charlie’s hearing that there is a good movie coming out illustrate?

A) Abolishing operation for reinforcement
B) Establishing operation for reinforcement
C) Abolishing operation for punishment
D) Establishing operation for punishment

D) Establishing operation for punishment

51

Conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) alter the effectiveness of consequences due to:
A) Either ontogenic or phylogenic provenance
B) Ontogenic provenance
C) Phylogenic provenance
D) Neither ontogenic nor phylogenic provenance

B) Ontogenic provenance

52

Which of the following is not a conditioned motivating operation?

A) Surrogate
B) Reflexive
C) Transitive
D) Symmetric

D) Symmetric

53

Surrogate motivating operations (CMO-S) acquire the properties of an MO through:
A) Contingent pairing with unconditioned and/or conditioned stimuli
B) Contingent pairing with reinforcers and/or punishers
C) Phylogenic provenance
D) Contingent pairing with other MOs

D) Contingent pairing with other MOs

Surrogate motivating operations are conditioned, so cannot be a result of phylogenic provenance: They are learned. Surrogate motivating operations do not acquire the properties of an MO through pairing with consequences (punishment or reinforcement), nor through pairing with unconditioned and/or conditioned stimuli (which pertain strictly to respondents). A surrogate MO is conditioned through pairing with a UMO or other strongly conditioned CMO.

54

Humphrey smokes cigarettes. He is trying to quit, but is having trouble. Whenever he sees someone on TV light up a cigarette (in an old Bogart movie for example), he begins craving a cigarette and usually goes to get one. In terms of Humphrey’s going to get a cigarette behavior, seeing others smoke on TV most likely functions as a(n):
A) Conditioned establishing operation—reflexive type
B) Conditioned establishing operation—surrogate type
C) Discriminative stimulus
D) Unconditioned motivating operation

B) Conditioned establishing operation—surrogate type

55

Which of the following is true of a transitive conditioned establishing operation (CEO-T)?
A) Establishes its own removal as a punisher
B) Establishes its own removal as reinforcer
C) Establishes a second stimulus as a reinforcer
D) Establishes a second stimulus as a punisher

C) Establishes a second stimulus as a reinforcer

56

Bob’s new Acme cell phone did not have its own SIM card. Bob’s old Banana brand cell phone has a perfectly good SIM card, but it can only be removed (and thus made available for the Acme phone) by using a special SIM Card Removal Tool designed specifically for the Banana phone. Bob has the tool – someplace – and finally finds it in his lower desk drawer. He removes the SIM card from his old Banana phone, and places it in his new Acme phone. The empty slot on the Acme phone established the SIM card as a conditioned reinforcer, but in relation to the SIM Card Removal Tool (which is obtained as a consequence for searching behavior), the SIM card being stuck in the old Banana brand phone functioned as a(n)>

A) Reflexive CEO
B) Discriminative stimulus
C) Transitive CEO
D) UAO for positive reinforcement

C) Transitive CEO

57

This type of CMO establishes its own termination as an effective form of negative reinforcement or punishment
A) CEO-S
B) CEO-R
C) CAO-R
D) CEO-T

B) CEO-R

58

Mack Heath invites three of his friends over his house to play Sharkbite, a 4-Player videogame. Lotte and Lucy remember to bring their controllers, but Suki forgets to bring hers. The game can only be played with 4 players, each with their own controller. Suki runs home (across the street) to get her controller. In relation to the value of Suki’s controller, the 4 players ready to play with the game all set to go, but only 3 controllers present, functions as a:
A) CEO-S
B) Sr+
C) SD
D) CEO-T

D) CEO-T

59

A CMO-reflexive type can have which of the following effects
A) Establishes its own termination as a form of positive punishment
B) Establishes the termination of another stimulus as a form of negative reinforcement
C) Establishes its own termination as a form of negative reinforcement
D) Abolishes its own termination as a form of positive reinforcement

C) Establishes its own termination as a form of negative reinforcement

60

Minnie applies mosquito repellant spray before she enters the camp site. Manny did not – and he is bitten by many mosquitos. He then applies an ointment which has provided some relief from the itchiness caused by the multiple bites. Minnie’s applying the mosquito repellant before camp is an example of X, and Manny’s applying the ointment to relieve the itchiness caused by the mosquito bites is an example of Y.
A) X=Avoidance Y=Escape
B) X=Escape Y=Avoidance
C) X= Avoidance Y=Avoidance
D) X= Escape Y=Escape

A) X=Avoidance Y=Escape

61

The brand new weather app on Carole’s smart phone is set to alert her about the current temperature every morning at 6AM. Upon seeing that the high for the day was 39° F she grabbed her favorite wool coat as she does not like to be cold. This is most likely an example of:
A) Signaled avoidance
B) Unsignaled avoidance
C) SD
D) Escape

A) Signaled avoidance

62

Rob and Ian are at a Rush concert. Many signs expressly prohibit the use of video cameras during the concert. Ian, who has been to many concerts, watches the security guards circulate for a while, and then in flagrant disregard of the rules, begins to video the band’s performance of their hit, Free Will. If he gets caught by security, he will be kicked out of the concert. After taping for about 8 minutes, Ian puts away his smart phone-video camera, even though he has not seen a single security guard in his section for several minutes. This is most likely an example of:

A) Signaled Avoidance
B) Unsignaled avoidance
C) Positive reinforcement
D) Escape

B) Unsignaled avoidance

63

Negative reinforcement requires that a(n) X stimulus exists which functions as a(n) Y for escape or avoidance.

A) X = neutral Y = AO
B) X = consequent Y = EO
C) X = antecedent Y = EO
D) X = conditioned Y = Sd

C) X = antecedent Y = EO

64

Discriminated avoidance is not a good term because the antecedent conditioned aversive stimulus, which evokes the avoidance response, is actually a(n):

A) SdP (for punishment)
B) EO (for negative reinforcement)
C) AO (for reinforcement)
D) Sd (for negative reinforcement)

B) EO (for negative reinforcement)

65

Tom and Kathy are at Plum Island beach in New England in August. Tom has experienced biting deer flies at this beach this time of year, so he has put on insect repellent, but Kathy does not like those chemicals on her skin, so she does not use repellant. While at the beach, Tom is not bothered by flies, but Kathy is bitten several times, so soon whenever she sees one flying around, she swats it away. Later that night, Tom shows Kathy pictures of their trip to the beach, and Kathy starts to scratch her arms. In terms of Kathy’s swatting away the flies at the beach behavior, how does a hovering fly function?

A) Sd
B) UMO
C) CMO-R
D) CMO-T

C) CMO-R

66

Kathy was bitten on the arm by the deer flies several times while at the beach, which evoked her scratching her arms where the flies bit her. She eventually began swatting flies away before they bit her. Later, looking at the pictures of the beach while she was at home evoked her scratching her arms. In terms of scratching her arms at the beach, the actual fly bites functioned as a X , while in terms of scratching her arms at home later that night, the pictures of the beach functioned as a Y .

A) X = CEO-R (threat) Y = CAO-S
B) X = CAO-S Y = UEO for avoidance
C) X = UEO for escape Y = CEO-S
D) X = UEO for escape Y = CAO-R (promise)

C) X = UEO for escape Y = CEO-S

67

While the CEO-R (threat) is related to X as a consequence (its last name), the CEO-R (promise) is related to Y as a consequence.>

A) X = Positive reinforcement Y = Positive punishment
B) X = Negative reinforcement Y = Positive punishment
C) X = Positive reinforcement Y = Negative punishment
D) X = Negative reinforcement Y = Negative punishment

D) X = Negative reinforcement Y = Negative punishment

68

An antecedent condition that alters the effectiveness of a consequence and has a momentary effect on a dimension of behavior is called a(n):
A) Motivating Operation
B) Establishing Operation
C) Discriminative Stimulus
D) Environmental Context

A) Motivating Operation

69

What are the two value-altering effects of motivating operations?
A) Establishing and Evocative
B) Evocative and Abative
C) Abative and Abolishing
D) Establishing and Abolishing effects

D) Establishing and Abolishing effects

70

What type of value-altering effect does an Establishing Operation have?

A) Decreases effectiveness of consequence
B) Depends on whether the consequence is reinforcement or punishment
C) Increases effectiveness of consequence
D) Evocative effect

C) Increases effectiveness of consequence

71

The specific behavior-altering effect of a specific motivating operation (either an EO or an AO) depends on whether that MO is:

A) Conditioned or unconditioned
B) Related to a value altering or function altering effect.
C) Reflexive or transitive
D) Related to reinforcement or punishment

D) Related to reinforcement or punishment

72

MOs can be broadly classified based on whether their value-altering effect is:

A) Conditioned or unconditioned
B) Due to current or future environmental conditions
C) A behavior-altering effect or a function-altering effect
D) Abative or evocative

A) Conditioned or unconditioned

73

Which of the following is NOT one of the eight types of motivating operations which alters the value of a specific type of unconditioned consequence?
A) EOSP-
B) AOSR-
C) EOSR+
D) AOSR

D) AOSR

74

When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus increases the value of other events as forms of reinforcement, a(n) ___ effect can be said to have taken place.
A) Reinforcer-establishing
B) Abative
C) Reinforcer-abolishing
D) Evocative

A) Reinforcer-establishing

75

Select two effects of AOs related to reinforcement:
A) Reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects
B) Reinforcer-abolishing and abative effects
C) Reinforcer-abolishing and evocative effects
D) Reinforcer-establishing and abative effects

B) Reinforcer-abolishing and abative effects

76

Having blurry vision increases the value of corrective lenses (eyeglasses) and evokes behavior that has resulted in obtaining glasses in the past. In terms of obtaining glasses, blurry vision functions as which type of MO?
A) Establishing operation for punishment
B) Abolishing operation for punishment
C) Abolishing operation for reinforcement
D) Establishing operation for reinforcement

D) Establishing operation for reinforcement

77

When an antecedent stimulus increases the likelihood of the occurrence of the behavior which has been reinforced by a particular consequence in the past, a(n) ___ effect can be said to have taken place.
A) Abative
B) Evocative
C) Reinforcer-establishing
D) Reinforcer-abolishing

B) Evocative

78

Which of the following are effects of EOs related to punishment?
A) Punisher-establishing and evocative effects
B) Punisher-establishing and abative effects
C) Punisher-abolishing and evocative effects
D) Punisher-abolishing and abative effects

B) Punisher-establishing and abative effects

79

When an antecedent condition, operation, or stimulus increases the likelihood of the occurrence of behavior that has been punished by particular events in the past, a(n) ___ effect may be said to have taken place.

A) Abative
B) Evocative
C) Reinforcer-establishing
D) Reinforcer-abolishing

B) Evocative

80

Winning the lottery decreases the effectiveness of traffic tickets (as consequences which weaken speeding behavior over time). Winning the lottery can thereby make speeding behavior more likely. In terms of speeding behavior and getting a ticket, winning the lottery functions as an:

A) Abolishing operation for reinforcement
B) Abolishing operation for punishment
C) Establishing operation for punishment
D) Establishing operation for reinforcement

B) Abolishing operation for punishment

81

Zippy has lost a great deal of the enamel on his teeth due to acid reflux. Thus his teeth are extremely sensitive to hot – and especially cold— food. The lack of tooth enamel increases the value (effectiveness) of icy cold foods (like ice cream) as a type of consequence, and thereby abates Zippy’s eating of especially cold foods. What type of motivating operation is the reduced enamel on Zippy’s teeth in terms of the effect of icy cold food?

A) Establishing operation for reinforcement
B) Abolishing operation for punishment
C) Abolishing operation for reinforcement
D) Establishing operation for punishment

D) Establishing operation for punishment

82

Conditioned motivating operations (CMOs) alter the effectiveness of consequences as a result of:
A) The individual’s learning history
B) The effect of conditioned stimuli in the individual’s past
C) The genetic inheritance of the species
D) The discriminative condition with which the CMO is associated

A) The individual’s learning history

83

Which of the following are the effects of AOs related to punishment? Punisher-abolishing effects and
A) reinforcer-establishing effects
B) evocative/abative effects
C) evocative effects
D) abative effects

C) evocative effects

84

Select the correct list of conditioned motivating operations from the options below:
A) Surrogate, symmetric, and transitive
B) Surrogate, reflexive, and transitive
C) Reflexive, surrogate, and symmetric
D) Reflexive, symmetric, and transitive

B) Surrogate, reflexive, and transitive

85

Surrogate motivating operations acquire the properties of an MO through pairing with other:
A) Unconditioned and/or conditioned stimuli
B) Motivating operations
C) Reinforcers and/or punishers
D) Discriminative stimuli

B) Motivating operations

86

Michael watches the news on TV while his wife cooks dinner at the end of the day. Now that he is retired, he starts watching the news on TV at different times of the day. He notices that every time he watches the news he gets a “craving” to get something to eat. In this scenario, the news reports on the TV function as a(n):
A) CEO-S
B) CEO-R
C) UEO
D) CEO-T

A) CEO-S

87

In the behavioral literature, as presented by Jose in this unit’s video, the CMO-Transitive type is discussed and analyzed exclusively in terms of its effect on which of the following?

A) Positive and negative punishment
B) Both positive and negative reinforcement
C) Positive punishment only
D) Positive reinforcement only

D) Positive reinforcement only

88

Jack Michael (both in his chapter in the Cooper, Heron, and Heward’s Applied Behavior Analysis 2nd edition text, and in his most recent Concepts and Principles text – the red soft cover text book) discusses three types of conditioned motivating operations – surrogate, reflexive, and transitive . He clearly states that, despite the strong support of reasoned conceptual analysis, very limited if any experimental evidence exists in the behavioral literature demonstrating the existence of the following type(s) of CMO:

A) Transitive
B) Reflexive
C) Surrogate
D) Surrogate and Reflexive

C) Surrogate

89

Jack Michael defined this type of antecedent as: “An event [e.g., stimulus] which establishes another stimulus as a necessary condition to complete the response that the first event [stimulus] evokes—and thus establishes that second stimulus as a reinforcer”. In other words, what is the term for an antecedent stimulus, which establishes another stimulus as a reinforcer, because the second stimulus is needed to complete an action made necessary by the sudden presence (onset) of that first antecedent stimulus?

A) Corporate CEO
B) Surrogate CEO
C) Transitive CEO
D) Reflexive CEO

C) Transitive CEO

90

Holly sets up a series of contrived discrete trials in the natural environment for Jeremy (an 8-year old boy with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder). In one such trial, Jeremy’s favorite food, cream of tomato soup, is served for lunch. The table setting has a bowl of soup, crackers, a napkin, fork, knife, and glass of water (which is Jeremy’s preferred drink when he eats creamy soup). The full bowl of soup and the fact that Jeremy has not eaten for several hours both combine to set the occasion for Jeremy to ask for the missing spoon. If he does not mand, Holly says, “Jeremy, here is you lunch. Now is there anything you need me to get for you?” When Jeremy says, “Spoon” Holly says, “Oh of course! Here you go” and hands him a spoon. In terms of Jeremy’s behavior, the immediate presentation of the spoon following his saying, “spoon” as a mand functions as a(n) __________?

A) Conditioned positive reinforcer
B) CEO-Transitive
C) Unconditioned positive reinforcer
D) CEO-Reflexive (promise type)

A) Conditioned positive reinforcer

91

Mr. Smith wants to reward his employees for a perfect annual review by throwing them an ice cream party. He set up an ice cream station, displaying many types of ice cream, toppings and syrups. Patti, an employee, arrives and attempts to make a sundae, but cannot because Mr. Smith never obtained an ice cream scoop. Patti smiles and goes downstairs to the kitchen area to get a scoop or large spoon. In terms of the value of the scoop/large spoon, the presence of all the ingredients to make a sundae with no scoop for the ice cream, functioned as a(n):
A) Transitive EO
B) Transitive AO
C) SD
D) Conditioned Stimulus

A) Transitive EO

92

A CEO-R (threat type), can have which of the following effects
X = establishes its own removal as a form of reinforcement
Y = establishes a different stimulus as a form of reinforcement
Z = evokes behavior that results in its own removal
A) X only
B) X and Z only
C) Y only
D) Z only

B) X and Z only

93

Which two (of the following four options) are appropriately paired together?
W = Threat CEO-R
X = Promise CEO-R
Y = Correlated with improving conditions
Z = Correlated with worsening conditions
A) None
B) W and Z
C) W and Y
D) X and Z

B) W and Z

94

Eddy lives in a dual-diagnosis mental-health group home. His skin is very sensitive, especially to very hot water. Roxanne, an evening staff person, asks Eddy to take his evening shower. Eddy immediately kicks Roxanne in the shins and she hobbles away, and Eddy does not have to take his evening shower. Over time, Eddie continues to kick Roxanne when she prompts him to take a shower. Eddy kicking Roxanne, which results in the removal of the demand to take a shower, is most likely an example of:
A) Oppositional defiant disorder
B) Escape
C) Intermittent explosive disorder
D) Avoidance

D) Avoidance

95

As Tamiko cuts Matthew’s nails, he is cooperative for about 5 minutes, and she is able to finish his right hand just as he begins to whine. “That’s all for now” she says. Later that day, when she begins to lift his left hand to cut his nails, before she begins to cut, he screams “NO!” and bites her. Immediately, she stands up and moves quickly away from him. She stops trying to cut the nails of his left hand. Matthew (as the behaver), screaming and biting Tamiko, which results in the nails of his left hand not beginning to be trimmed, is an example of ______ ; Tamiko (as the behaver) standing up and moving away, immediately upon being bitten, is an example of _____.

A) Avoidance, escape
B) Escape, escape
C) Escape; Avoidance
D) Avoidance; Avoidance

A) Avoidance, escape

96

Dom, who lives in a group home, does not like going to the doctor due to a past history of unpleasant and sometimes painful experiences in medical environments. Carole informs Dom that they will have to leave for a doctor’s appointment in a half hour. Upon hearing this, Dom runs out the front door while yelling obscenities at Carole. As a result, they miss the doctor’s appointment. Dom’s behavior is an example of:
A) Unsignaled avoidance
B) Signaled avoidance
C) Escape
D) Signaled Escape

B) Signaled avoidance

97

Julian works in an office where everyone is partitioned into workspace cubicles. Every half hour or so, the floor manager walks the floor to check on all the workers. The partitions make it impossible to see if the manager is approaching. Julian plays a lot of games on his cell phone. He spends a lot of work time doing this. Every 20 minutes or so, he puts his cell phone away, waits for the manager to pass by, and then goes back to playing on his phone for another 20 minutes or so. Julian’s putting his phone away every 20 minutes or so is an example of :
A) Unsignaled avoidance
B) A CMO-R
C) Escape maintained behavior
D) A conditioned response

A) Unsignaled avoidance

98

An antecedent stimulus establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement. What is the antecedent stimulus, and what type of reinforcement does this describe?
A) UEO; Unconditioned
B) CEO; Conditioned
C) EO; Negative
D) EO; Positive

C) EO; Negative

99

In “discriminated” avoidance, the warning stimulus functions as an
A) SD
B) SDP
C) AO
D) EO

D) EO

100

After a long day at the beach, Kathy and Tom come home. It was a cloudy day, so Tom never put on sunscreen, and is sunburned. Kathy did wear sunscreen so does not have a sunburn. Tom’s skin begins to sting, and he begins to whine about it. Kathy does not want to listen to him whine anymore, so she puts some aloe gel on Tom’s back, which makes the stinging go away and he stops whining. In terms of Kathy putting the aloe gel on Tom’s back, how did Tom whining function?
A) SDP
B) CEO-R
C) CEO-S
D) UEO for negative reinforcement

B) CEO-R

101

Tom’s sunburn evoked his whining, and eventually Kathy put aloe on his back to get him to stop whining. In terms of Tom’s whining behavior (which resulted in Kathy putting aloe on his back), how did the feeling of having sunburned skin function?
A) UEO for negative reinforcement
B) UAO for positive reinforcement
C) CEO-R for negative reinforcement
D) SDP for positive punishment

A) UEO for negative reinforcement

102

A time-in condition is necessary for a time-out to be effective as punishment. Time-in reduces the likelihood of behavior which would result in a person losing access to that time-in setting, and missing all the great things still to come! Thus time-in functions as a(n) X which establishes the its own termination as a form of Y , and abates behavior that would result in its own termination.

A) X = SDP Y = Positive punishment
B) X = Positive reinforcer Y = Negative punishment
C) X = CEO-R (threat) Y = Negative reinforcement
D) X = CEO-R (promise) Y = Negative punishment

D) X = CEO-R (promise) Y = Negative punishment

103

an antecedent condition, operation or stimulus that alters the efftiveness of a consequence and has a momentary effect on a dimension of behavior

Motivating Operation

104

EO's have ___ effects

two

105

Establishing effect is their value altering effect on ______and the evocative effect is their effect on _________

Reinforcement
Behavior