Unit 1: Psychology's History and Approaches Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Psychology's History and Approaches Deck (37):
1

Empiricism

The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation

2

Structuralism

Early school of thoughts promoted by Wundt and Titchener. They used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

3

Functionalism

Exploration of how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish

4

Experimental psychology

The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

5

Behaviorism

The view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologist agree with 1 and not 2

6

Humanistic psychology

A historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people

7

Conditioning

The way our behavior is influenced by learning associations

8

Cognitive neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition

9

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes

10

Nature – nurture issue

The controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

11

Natural selection

The principle that traits contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

12

Levels of analysis

The differing complementary views, from that biological to psychological to social – culture for analyzing any given phenomenon

13

Bipsychosocial approach

An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social – cultural levels of analysis

14

What are the three main levels of analysis?

Biological, psychological, social – culture

15

Behavioral psychology

The scientific study of observable behavior, and it's explanation by principles of learning

16

Biological psychology

The scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes

17

Cognitive psychology

The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

18

Evolutionary psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection

19

Psychodynamic psychology

A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior and use that info to treat people with psychological disorders

20

Social cultural psychology

The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

21

Psychometrics

Scientific study of measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

22

Psychohistory

The psychological analysis of historical characters

23

Psycholinguistics

The study of language and thinking

24

Psychoceramics

Study of crackpots

25

Basic research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

26

Developmental psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

27

Educational psychology

The study of how psychological processes effect and can enhance teaching/learning

28

Personality psychology

The study of individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

29

Social psychology

The scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another

30

Applied research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

31

Industrial – organizational psychology

The application of psychological concepts to optimizing human behavior in workplace

32

Human factors psychology

An I/O psychology subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and environments can be made safe and easy to use

33

Counseling psychology

A branch of psychology that assist people with problems in living and achieving a greater well-being

34

Clinical psychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

35

Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders. It is practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments and psychological therapy

36

Positive psychology

The scientific study of human functioning, with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

37

Community psychology

A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups