Unit 1 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 Test Deck (59):
1

What are the 5 characteristics of life for all living organisms?

Cellular, Replication, Evolutional of populations, Genetic, info, and acquire and use energy.

2

Who invented the first microscope?

Robert Hook

3

What is spontaneous generation?

The theory that organisms could arise spontaneously under non living things

4

What is the term "fitness" mean in natural selection?

Ability for an individual to survive and reproduce.

5

What are the 3 main subatomic particles?

Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons.

6

Isotope?

Element with different amount of neutrons

7

Orbital?

Electrons moving in specific regions

8

Nucleus?

Made up of protons and neutrons

9

Ion?

Charged Particle

10

Element?

Can not be broken down further without energy

11

What are the Elements found in living organisms?

Hydrogen, Carbon Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur.

12

What is atomic #?

# of protons (# of Electrons)

13

What is Atomic Mass?

Protons + Neutrons

14

How many electrons go in the first shell?

2

15

Molecule?

Substance held together by covalent bonds

16

Molecular formula?

Protons # and types of atoms

17

Structural Formula

Seeing the structure and bonds

18

What are the 4 types of Chemical bonds?

ionic bond, nonpolar covalent bond, polar covalent bond, and hydrogen bond.

19

ionic bond?

Electron transfer

20

nonpolar covalent?

Atom has no charge

21

Polar covalent?

Atoms have a partial charge

22

Hydrogen bond?

weak electronic attraction

23

What is a spontaneous reaction?

when a reaction is able to proceed on its own without external energy

24

Exothermic?

spontaneous, energy released, entropy increases

25

Entropy?

Amount of disorder

26

Endothermic?

Energy input required, entropy decreases

27

1st Law of Thermodynamics

Conservation of energy, energy nor created nor destroyed

28

2nd Law Entropy

Disorder in system, tendency towards chaos

29

What are the properties of water?

Versatile solvent, Cohesion (surface tension), Adhesion (binds unlike molecules), and Thermal Blanket.

30

What is an Organic molecule?

Contain a carbon bonded to it

31

Isomers?

Same molecular formulas but different structures

32

Monomer?

Small molecule covalently bond to others to make bigger molecules

33

Polymers?

Monomers bonded together

34

Dimers?

2 molecules that are Identical or different

35

Condensation reaction?

removal of OH and H to form water

36

Hydrolysis reaction?

water splits the molecule

37

What are the 4 levels of protein structure?

Primary (DNA to RNA to Protein Structure), Secondary (elasticity), Tertiary (3D structure), and Quaternary.

38

Features of DNA

Double Strand, OH, Big, Thymine

39

Features of RNA

Single Strand, H, Small, Uracil

40

Six functions of Protein

Catalysis, Defense, Movement, Signaling, Structure, and Transport

41

What did Chargaff contribute?

A=T and G=C

42

Rosalind Franklin contribution?

Helical Shape, 3.4nm distance

43

Maurice Wilkins contribution?

Helical Shape

44

James Watson and Francis Crick contribution?

Model Building

45

Importance of complementary base pairing?

Allows for easy DNA replication

46

3 major classes of lipids

Steroids, Triglycerides, Phospholipids

47

What is an amphipathic molecule?

Having a polar hydrophilic, and a non polar Hydrophobic

48

What is selective permeability?

Lets certain molecules in and out

49

What is "concentration gradient"

High to Low concentration

50

Process of Osmosis

Diffusion of water

51

Hypotonic?

Low solute, High solvent

52

Hypertonic?

High solute, Low solvent

53

What is Fluid Mosaic Model?

Mixture of phospholipids and different types of proteins that move amongst each other

54

What is integral proteins?

Span of the membrane, inside

55

Peripheral proteins?

On the side of the membranes

56

Passive diffusion?

No energy required

57

Active Diffusion?

Needs energy

58

Facilitated Diffusion?

Movement of substance through membrane

59

What is Aquaporin's?

Transport water 10x faster than normal