Flashcards in Unit 1: The Chemistry Of Life Deck (79):
Types of compounds
Organic and inorganic
What are organic compounds?
•Compounds that don't contain carbon
•Not produced by living organism
Eg of inorganic compounds
What inorganic compounds contain carbon
CO2 and CO and carbonates because they don't have carbon hydrogen bonds
What are organic compounds?
•Chemical compounds that contain carbon
•Produced by living organisms
Eg of organic compounds
Most important inorganic compound?
Functions of water in living organisms
•Medium in which chemical reactions occur
•Reagent during hydrolysis
•Regulates body temperature
•Gives shape and rigidity
What are mineral salts?
Inorganic substances/elements that are needed and absorbed by living organisms
How do living organisms absorb mineral salts?
Plants - absorb from soil
Animals - obtain from the food we eat
Two groups of mineral salts
•Macro-elements-needed in large quantities
•Micro-elements-needed in small quantities
What are the macro elements?
What are the micro-elements?
Functions of calcium
•Build strong bones
•Blood coagulation (clotting)
•Plays role in permeability of cell membranes
•Plays a role in muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission
Human- rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis
Plants - weak root growth
Functions of phosphorus
•Builds strong bones and teeth
•Component of ATP
•Component of DNA and RNA
•Part of phospholipid in cell membranes
Plants - stunted growth
Humans - seldom occurs
•Maintaining water balance
•Helps with the functioning of nerves and muscle contraction
•Controls rhythm of the heart
Deficiencies of sodium
Humans - muscle cramps
Plants - unknown
•Maintaining water balance in the body
•Facilitates the functioning of muscles and nerves
•Helps to regulate heart rhythm
•Necessary to activate plant enzymes
Humans - seldom occurs
Plant - yellow and brown leaf margins
•Helps form haemoglobin that transports Oxygen in blood
•Helps to form chlorophyll molecules in the plants
Deficiencies for iron
Human - anaemia
Plants - chlorosis ( yellowing of leaves)
•For thyroxin which is secreted by thyroid gland
Deficiency from iodine
Goitre (swelling of the neck or larynx)
What are the compound minerals
Functions of nitrogen
•Nitrogen forms nucleotides of DNA and RNA and synthesis of chlorophyll
•Minerals are washed away during heavy rains into rivers an dams
•Phosphates cause drastic increase in the growth of freshwater algae called algal bloom
•Algae blocks sunlight from photosynthesising organisms which results in death pf water plants
•Decomposed dead material leads to large amounts of bacteria
•Decomposition needs oxygen therefore depleting oxygen supply in water and killing fish
What are enzymes?
Proteins that accelerate chemical reactions inside living cells
What are catalysts?
Substances that accelerate chemical reactions
What is an enzyme?
Biological catalyst that accelerates a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy without itself being changed by the reaction
What are the chemical reactions that take place in living cells?
What are the two types of metabolic reactions?
What happens during an anabolic reaction?
A complex molecule is built up from simple molecules
•Energy is required
What happens during a catabolic reaction?
•A complex molecule is broken down into simple molecules
•Energy is usually released
What is it called when water breaks down complex molecules(food) into simple molecules?
What is the suffix used for enzymes
What enzyme is used for water and maltose?
What enzyme is used for water and sucrose?
What enzyme is used for water and lactase?
Examples of carbohydrate digestive enzymes
Lipid digestive enzyme
Protein digestive enzyme
Protease e.g pepsin
Substance on which enzyme acts
Substance formed during reaction
What is formed when an enzyme and substrate are temporarily bonded?
What happens during enzyme substrate complex stage?
•Enzyme lowers activation energy
•Substrate changes chemically and leaves active sight
•Enzyme is unchanged and ready to bond with another substrate
What is the lock and key model?
Action of enzymes
Are enzymes sensitive to temperature changes?
What do lower temperatures do to enzymes?
Make them temporarily inactive
Temperature at which most enzymes work the best
What is to denature
At high temperatures the shape of the enzyme begins to change and the substrate no longer fits into the active site
Is denaturation reversible
No. Once it denatures, it can't return to its proper shape when the temperature is lowered.
What is an optimum pH?
Narrow pH range within which an enzyme can function
What are the properties of enzymes?
•Sensitive to temperatures - denatures at high temperatures and becomes temporarily inactive in low temperatures
•Denature if pH changes drastically
•Enzymes can be used over and over again
•Small amount of enzyme can change a large amount of substrate
An enzyme in everyday life
Biological washing powders
What elements make up nucleic acids?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
Two types of nucleic acids
•DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
•RNA - ribonucleic acid
Where is DNA found?
Nucleus and forms part of chromatin network and chromosomes (during cell division)
Function of DNA
Carry hereditary characteristics and controls the structure and function of the cell
Where is RNA found?
Nucleus and cytoplasm forms part of ribosomes
Function of RNA
•Protein synthesis-ensures amino acids bind to each other in a certain sequence
• According to instructions from DNA
What are vitamins essential for?
•Development of the body
Amount of vitamins required
Needed in small quantities and are produced by plants
When do vitamins need in order to perform their functions?
They must be in a solution:
What are the water soluble vitamins
•B vitamins and vitamin C
•absorbed by the body together with water
•excess vitamins are not stored
—excreted in urine and must therefore be taken regularly
Fat soluble vitamins
•Vitamins A, D, E and K
•Only absorbed when dissolved in fat
•Vitamins are stored in the body
What do insufficient vitamins cause?
Sources of vitamin A
Deficiency of vitamin a
Night blindness - poor vision in dim light
Xerophthalmia - dry corneas
Sources of vitamin B1
Deficiency for vitamin B1
Beri beri - nervous disorder
Sources of vitamin C
•Green leafy vegetables
Deficiencies of vitamin C
Scurvy - bleeding gums, wounds that don't heal, internal bleeding
Sources of vitamin D
Sources of vitamin E
Leafy vegetables e.g spinach and lettuce, sunflower seeds, wholegrain and wheatgerm
Deficiency of vitamin D
Rickets(rachitis) - soft bones, malformed skeleton