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Flashcards in Unit 10 Deck (39):
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Developmental psychology

Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout human life span; guided by genetic predisposition and environment

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Teratogens

Substances that can harm the fetus

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Survival reflexes

Variety of responses to environmental stimuli that appear from the first day of life

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Examples of reflexes

Rooting: touch face= turn head and open mouth
Tongue thrust: touch lips= stick tongue out
Sucking, blinking, grasping

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Stage model of cognitive development

Children at different ages think in fundamentally different ways

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Assimilation

Placing new information into categories/schemas that have already been formed

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Accomodation

Learning new info and differentiating it from old schemas

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Sensorimotor stage

Direct physical inxn with objects; from birth to ~2 yo

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Object permanence

Childs ability to know that an object exists even if they aren't currently perceiving that object

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Piagets 4 stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational

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Preoperational:

Ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery; 2-7 yo

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Egocentrism

Unable to see and understand other ppl's viewpoints

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Theory of mind

Ability to take another persons point of view

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Concrete operational

Ability to form premises using abstract concepts (time, space, numbers)

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Conservation

Changes in form doesn't necessitate changes in the quantity; law of conservation of mass; 7-11 yo

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Formal operational

Ability to draw conclusions from abstract premises; 11 yo

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Internalized

Mental processes take place symbolically in our minds

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Scaffolding

Caregivers support child to achieve high learning goals by providing support and guidance

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Zone of proximal development

Abilities that a person is just learning to use; its a challenge but not overly difficult

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Self awareness

Realization that you're a distinct individual; ~ 5 months

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Self concept

Knowledge of who we are

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Social comparison

Comparing yourself to others; 6-7 yo

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Attachment

Emotional bonds created with others

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Strange situation

Child + Parent; Child + parent + stranger; child + stranger; child + parent

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4 types of child attachment:

Secure: explores freely with mother and stranger around
Ambivalent/insecure resistant: clingy to mom and wary of everything
Avoidant: ignores mother
Disorganized: no consistent way to deal with the situation

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Temperament

Innate personality

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4 types of temperament:

Easy: happy and adapt quickly, 40%
Slow to warm up: withdrawn and takes time to warm up, 15%
Difficult: fearful, intense rxns; 10%
No single category: 35%

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Parenting style

Parental behavior that determines parent/child relationship

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4 types of parenting styles

Authoritarian: imposes rules without explanations
Permissive: allows kids to make their own rules
Authoritative: demanding but responsive to the childs needs
Rejecting-neglecting: undemanding and unresponsive

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Menarche

First menstrual cycle

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Egocentrism

Idea that you know better than anyone else and that you can do anything

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Main goal of adolescence:

Search for identity

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James marcias stages of dvpt:

Foreclosure: adopting beliefs/roles of those around you w/o question
Moratorium status: trying on different identities to find the one that fits
Identity achievement: integrate different possibilities into 1 identity

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Moral reasoning:

Individuals ability to make moral decisions

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Kohlbergs 3 stages of moral reasoning:

Preconventional: morals are self-directed towards receiving rewards and avoiding punishments
Conventional: early adolescence, noticing how situations impact others
Postconventional: morals are based on self chosen ethical principals

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Critiques of kohlbergs moral reasonings:

Girls are more "others" oriented; some kids can be both preconventional and conventional

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Erik Eriksons life challenges

Intimacy vs isolation: learning to love
Generativity vs stagnation: influencing the next generation

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Social clock

Culturally preferred times for life events

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5 stages of dealing with death

Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance