Unit 10- Personality (5-7%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10- Personality (5-7%) Deck (66):
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Karen Horney’s Theory of Personality

Karen horney believe that social and cultural conditions ,exspecially during childhood, have large effects on our personality.

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Basic Anxiety

Horney's term for being isolated or helpless

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Carl Jung’s Theory of Personality

eight personality types based on the opposing attitudes of introversion and extroversion. Attitudes are predispositions for how people act.

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Jung’s Persona

was the social face the individual presented to the world. The side of people that others see.

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Collective unconscious

common reservoir of images derived from our species’ universal experiences.

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Archetypes

Jung believed Archetypes represent fundamental human motifs of our experience as we evolved; consequentially, they evoke deep emotions.

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Alfred Adler’s Theory of Personality

4 personality “types” that he distinguished based on the different levels of energy he felt they manifested.

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Inferiority Complex

lack of self-worth, a doubt and uncertainty, and feelings of not measuring up to standards.often subconscious

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Humanistic Theories of Personality

Rogers, Maslow and Kelly Theories that personality is based on human needs and growth

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Self-actualization


the realization or fulfillment of one's talents and potentialities, especially considered as a drive or need present in everyone

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Personality- definition

A person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

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Free association

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

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Frauds pyschoanalysis

Freuds theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.

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Pyschoanalysis : divisions of the mind

Divides into three parts. First the id which operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. Second the ego, which operates on the reality principle. Third, the superego which internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement.

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Libido

Sexual desire. The energy of the sexual drive as a component of the life instinct.

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Id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

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Pleasure principle

is the instinctual seeking of pleasure and avoiding of pain in order to satisfy biological and psychological needs. Specifically, the pleasure principle is the driving force guiding the id.

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Ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

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Superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

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The reality principle

is the ability of the mind to assess the reality of the external world, and to act upon it accordingly, as opposed to acting on the pleasure principle.

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Defensive mechanisms

A defence mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli. Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies. Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct.

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Repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

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Displacement

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

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Reaction formation

In psychoanalytic theory, defensive process (defense mechanism) in which emotions and impulses which are anxiety-producing or perceived to be unacceptable are mastered by exaggeration.

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Compensation

In psychology, compensation is a strategy whereby one covers up, consciously or unconsciously, weaknesses, frustrations, desires, or feelings of inadequacy or incompetence in one life area through the gratification or (drive towards) excellence in another area.

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Rationalization

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.

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Regression

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.

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Denial

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.

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Sublimation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people re-channel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.

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Womb envy

In psychology, the terms womb envy denote the anxiety that many men may feel caused by envy of the biological functions of the female sex: (pregnancy, parturition, breast feeding).

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Humanistic Theorists

Freud,rogers, Maslow,Kelly, - focused on humanistic quillities rather then behaviors

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Carl rogers

believed that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actu- alizing tendencie

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Self-concept


an idea of the self constructed from the beliefs one holds about oneself and the responses of others

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Ideal self

The version you find ideal, or you strive to most be like

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Unconditional Positive Regard

attitude of grace, an attitude that values us even knowing our failings

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Albert Bandura’s Concept of Self-Efficacy

one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task.

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Julian Rotter’s Locus of Control Theory

the extent to which individuals believe they can control events affecting them

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Internal Locus of Control

These people believe that they are responsible for their own success.

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External locus of control

these people believe that external forces, like luck, determine their outcomes.

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Trait Theories of Personality

Combination and integration of traits form a personality

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Paul Costa and Robert McCrae

Came up with the big five personality traits

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Big Five Personality Traits

openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are the traits used to determine personality

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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to ID emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this testis now used for many other screening purposes.

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Factor Analysis

A statistically procedure that Ids clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to ID different dimensions of a performance that underlie ones total score

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Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

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Gordon Allport's Cardinal Dispositions

Persuasive of all aspects of behavior.

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Gordon Allport's Central Dispositions

Characteristic way of behaving. These traits affect the way we behave and deal with others.

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Gordon Allport's Secondary Disposition

Not vital part of personality, subject to change.

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Eysenck's Big Three

Extraversion, sociability, neuroticism: level of stability, psychoticism: level of sensitivity

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Ramond Cattell Source and Surface Traits

Developed an influential theory of personality, created the 16 factor test, and developed the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior. the most fundamental dimensions of personality; broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and few in number.

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Problems with Psychoanalytic Theory

Traditional psychoanalysis involved a distancing between therapist and client—the two did not even face each other during the sessions. In recent years, many clients have preferred a more interactive experience with the therapist. The subject matter of Freudian analysis has also fallen into disuse, even among those who still practice psychoanalysis: early childhood receives much less emphasis, and there is generally more focus on problems the client is currently experiencing. By the early 21st cent., various kinds of psychoanalysis continued to be practiced, but the theory and practice of psychoanalysis was increasingly overshadowed by cognitive psychology and discoveries in neurobiology.

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Problems with Humanistic Theory

The prominence of the humanistic perspective set off a backlash of criticism. First, said the critics, its concepts are vague and subjective. Consider Maslow’s de- scription of self-actualizing people as open, spontaneous, loving, self-accepting, and productive. Is this a scientific description? Isn’t it merely a description of the theorist’s own values and ideals?

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Problems with Cognitive Theory

Cognitive approaches have made no impact on research and treatment in obsessional-compulsive disorder, despite the obvious link between thinking and psychopathology that characterizes this disorder. A close examination of cognitive models leads to the suggestion that intrusive thoughts are best regarded as cognitive stimuli rather than responses. Cognitive responses to these stimuli are typically linked to beliefs concerning responsibility or blame for harm to self or others.

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Problems with Trait Theory

Many current trait theorists suggest that a consensus is emerging around the Big Five as the basic structure of personality. It is argued that the evidence is less supportive and convincing than is suggested by trait enthusiasts, that there are fundamental problems with the trait concept, and that the trait model is not the only personality model to recognize consistency and coherence in functioning.

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The TAT

Presumes that the hopes, fears, and interests expressed in the descriptions of the series of ambiguous pictures are projected as his inner feelings.

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Rorschach Ink Test

People tell what they see in a serious of symmetrical inkblots. Some who use this test are confident that the interpretation of ambiguous stimulus will reveal unconscious personality.

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Self Serving Bias

A readiness to preceive oneself favorably.

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Spotlight effect

Overestimate others noticing and evaluating our appearance and performance.

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Terror Management Theory

Death related anxiety, explores people's emotional and behavioral response to reminders to their impending death.

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Reciprocal Determinism

Interaction influence behavior internal cognition and environment.

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Hawthorne Effect

Is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify or improve an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.

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The Halo Effect

Is a cognitive bias in which an observer's overall impression of a person, company, brand, or product influences the observer's feelings and thoughts about that entity's character or properties. It was named by psychologist Edward Thorndike in reference to a person being perceived as having a halo

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Basking in Reflected Glory

Self serving cognition whereby an individual associated themselves with known successful others such that the winners success becomes the individuals own accomplishments.

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Barnum Effect

Tendency to accept certain information as true such as character assessment or horoscopes even when the i for is so vague as to be worthless.

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Pyschoanalysis: preconscious

in Freud's theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness

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Pyschoanalysis: subconscious

The subconscious mind or the preconscious mind consists of accessible information. You can become aware of this information once your direct your attention to it. Think of this as memory recall.