Unit 11, 12 &13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 11, 12 &13 Deck (125):
1

What are the four major regions of the brain

1. cerebrum
2. diencephalon
3. brainstem
4. cerebellum

2

what are the two halves of the cerebrum called?

left and right cerebral hemispheres

3

what is the outer surface of the brain folds called and the depressions between the folds called?

-gyri
-sulci

4

how many cranial nerves are there?

12

5

what does rostral mean?

-towards the nose, anterior

6

what does caudal mean?

towards the tail- posterior, inferior

7

by the fifth week of development what five regions appear?

telencephalon
diencephalon
mesencephalon
metencephalon
myelencephalon

8

what does the telencephalon form into?

cerebrum

9

what does the diencephalon form into

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

10

what does the mesencephalon form into

section of the brain stem between the diencephalon and the pons

11

what does the metecephalon turn into

pons and cerebellum

12

what does the myelencephalon turn into

medulla oblonganta

13

as the brain develops its surface folds in the telencephalon, what forms?

adult sulci and gyri

14

when do the gyri and sulci develop?

late in fetal period

15

why does the brain bend, crease and fold?

fit massive amount of brain tissue within the cranial cavity

16

what does the gray matter in the brain house? 4 things
(the do stuff)

motor neurons and cell bodies
dendrites
branching axon terminal
unmyelinated axons

17

what does the white matter get its color from?

myelinated axons

18

what does the white matter contain? 3

myelinated axons
dendrites
neuralgia cells

19

during brain development and OUTER forms from what

migrating peripheral neurons

20

what does the cortex cover

surface of most adult brain

21

the white matter of the brain lies _____ to the gray matter of the cortex

DEEP

22

what is the inner region of the white matter called

medulla

23

sudden decelerations can cause the gray and white mater to _____

SHEAR at the interface

24

the brains gray butter layer and white inner layer are ____ compared to the spinal cord

REVERSED

25

The bony cranium provides what

rigid support

26

what are the connective membranes that surround and partition portions of the brain called

meninges

27

the cerebral spinal fluid provides

cushioning fluid

28

what does the blood brain barrier prevent

harmful materials from the bloodstream

29

what are the three meninges connective layers that separate the brain from the cranium

pia mater
arachmoid mater
dura mater

30

what is the pia mater connect to

the brain

31

the arachnoid is

a web of collagen

32

what is the potential space in the arachnoid mater called

subdural space

33

what is the strongest meninge layer

dura mater

34

whithin the cranium, what are the two dura maters composed of

-"meningeal layer"-deep into the periosteal layer
-"periosteal layer"- more superficial layer of the cranial bones

35

what are the dural venous sinuses

large veins that drain blood from the brain and transport the blood to the INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIGNS

36

the dura mater maybe separated by the potential ______ . which contains the arteries and veins that nourish the meninges and bones of the cranium.

epidural space

37

the epidural space has the potential to become what

real space to fill with fluid or blood as a result of trauma or disease

38

what are the double layers of dura mater called

cranial dural septa

39

what are the four cranial dura septa

falx cerebri
tentorium cerebelli
falx cerebelli
diphragm sellae

40

what are the two dura maters composed of

meningeal layer and periosteal layer

41

what are the two layers separated to form blood filled spaces called

dural venous sinuese

42

what does th dural venous sinuses transport blood to

internal jugular veing

43

what has the potential to become space that is filled with fluid or blood

epidural space

44

what are the double layers of dura mater called

cranial dural septa

45

where/what is the falx cerbri

verticle fold of dura mater

46

ventricles

caaties or expansions within the brain

47

what are the two later ventricles separated by

septum pellucidum

48

what does the CSF help the brain do

boyancy so it floats
protection against sudden movements
environmental stability

49

the spinal fluid is produced by the

chroid plexi

50

why is the CSF constintly being removed from the subarachnoid space

won't accumulate and damage the nervous tissue

51

what does the arachnoid villi eventually do

fingerlike extensions of the arachnoid in the dura mater
-empty into the dural venous sinuses

52

the blood brain barrier is reduced or missing in these three locations in the CNS

choroid plexi
hypothalamus
pineal gland

53

what does the cerebrum do

though processes of intellect
-reasoning, sensory, movement, thoughts, memories

54

what is the outer gray and white layer of the cerebrum called

- cerebral cortex
-cerebral medulla

55

the cerebrum has folds(___), depressions (____), and deeper groves(__).

-gyri
-sulci
-fissures

56

what ae the two halves of the cerebrum called

cerebral hemispheres

57

what is the big line that splits the two brains in half that runs along the midsagittal line?

longitudinal fissure

58

what is the white matter that connects the hemispheres together and communicted them to each other?

corpus callosum

59

what does the parietal lobe do

movement and interpretation

60

temporal lobe do?

hearing,interp of speech, smell

61

occipital lobe do

processing info, storing memories

62

insula lobe do?

inside temporal lobe
-memory, interp of taste

63

what is coup-contrecoup

concussion.
brain hitting the walls back and forth

64

what does the pineal gland produce in the epithalamus

melatonin

65

what does the thalamus inside the diencephalon do

relay sensory information except for smell

66

what does the hypothalamus do

master contoll of the autonomic nervous system-heart rate, blood pressure, digestive activity

67

what are the two hormones the hypothalamus secretes to control the secretory activity of the anterior pituitary glad?

antidiuretic and oxytocin hormores

68

what are the three things the brainstem houses

mesencephalon
pons
medulla oblongata

69

what are the five regions of the spinal cord and how many nerves are associate with them

1. cervical 8
2.thoracic 12
3. lumbar 5
4. sacral 5
5. coccygeal 1
31 in total

70

what is the tapering at the inferior end of the spinal cord called

conus medullaris

71

what vertebra does the spinal cord end in adults

L1

72

what is the projection off the spinal cord that is groups of axons called

cauda equina

73

what is the strand of pia matter that helps anchor the conus modulars to the cococcyx

filum terminale

74

what is the structures and space encircling the spinal cord from outer to inner (7)

1. vertebra
2. epidural space
3. dura mater
4.subdural mater
5. arachnoid
6. subarachnoid space
7. pia

75

what does the white mater of the spinal cord do

communication to and from the brain

76

what does the gray mater of the spinal cord do
and what does it house

center for spinal reflexes
-central canal that is filled with CSF

77

what do the 31 pairs of spinal nerves connect to

muscles, glands, receptors

78

what is a dermatome

segment of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve (L1-groin)

79

what is referred visceral pain

pain or discomfort from an organ that is mistaken for a dermatome

80

what is a nerve plexus

network of interweaving spinal nerves

81

what vertebras is the phrenic nerve formed from and what can it do

C4 and axons from C3nC5.
-can cause the diagram to have hiccups

82

what are the five nerves that the brachial plexus consists of

1. axiliary
2. median
3. musculocutaneous
4. radial
5. ulnar

83

where does the auxiliary nerve innervate

deltoid and teres minor muscles

84

where does the median nerve innervate

palm side of fingers 1,2,3, and part of 4 from the dorsal tips of these fingers.

85

where does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate

bicep brachii/ lateral surface of the forearm

86

where does the radial nerve innervate

tricep brachii/ posterior arm and forearm

87

where does the ulnar nerve innervate

epicondyle fo humerus and skin and palmar aspect of finger 5 and half of finger 4.

88

what are the two nerves that the lumbar plexuses compose of

obturator
femoral

89

what are the two nerves the sacral plexus consist of and what does the sciatic nerve pass through

-tibial (posterior of thigh), and common fibular(toes dorsal flexion).
-gluteus max and piriformis

90

what does the central nervous system primarily form from

neural tube

91

cranial=____
caudal=____

- superior, develops into the brain
- inferior, brainstem

92

what does the hallow neural cal in the embryonic neural tube develop into

central canal

93

what does a newborns spinal cord extend to

L3

94

what does a childs spinal cord extend to

L2

95

what does and adult spinal cord extend to

L1

96

injury to the spinal cord above C3 usually leads to death. why

mucsle contracting the diagram are lost

97

what does quadriplegia mean

paralysis of all four limbs

98

trauma to what vertebras typically leads to quadriplegia

between C4 and C7

99

trauma to the spinal cord between what vertebras will lead to paraplegia

T1 and L1

100

what does homeostasis mean

maintaining consistency- equilibrium

101

what does the cardiovascular system consist of

heart and blood vessels

102

arteries carry blood ____ from the heart

away

103

veins carry blood ____ the heart

towards

104

what are the veins and arteries entering and leaving the heart called

great vessels

105

what prevents back flow of blood within the heart

valves

106

what does the right side of the heart do

directs blood to the lungs for gas exchange

107

what does the left side of the heart of

directs blood to body tissue for nutrients and respiratory gas

108

how does the heart delevlope blood pressure

the heart will contraction and relaxation

109

the cardiovascular system consist of two circulations what are they

pulmonary and systemic circulations

110

blood that is high in oxygen is pumped into the what

aorta

111

what are the smallest vessels

capillaries

112

what are the two places veins can merge into and that drains into the right atrium

1. superior vena cave
2. inferior vena cava

113

the inferior conical end of the heart is called what

apex

114

the posteriorsuperior surface of the heart is called the

base

115

what is the pericardium

fibrous sac and double layered lining

116

what is the tough outer portion of connective tissue on the heart called

fibrous pericardium (attached to both the diagram and base of great vessels)

117

what is the inner portion of a thin double layered serous membrane called

serous pericardium

118

what are the to layers of the serous membrane called

parietal
visceral (epicardium)

119

inflammation or bleeding into the pericardial cavity can lead to

cardiac tamponade

120

what can cardiac tamponade lead to a life threatening thing

pulpus paradoxus
jugular vein distention
falling blood pressure

121

what are the three layers of the heart wall

1 epicardium
2 myocardium
3 endocardium

122

what can happen in the myocardium wall

heart attack- myocardial infarction (MI)

123

the endcardium is continuos with the endothelium, which is

lining of the blood vessels

124

what are the four chambers of the heart

1 two small artia
2 two large ventricles

125

what layers does myocardial infraction occur

epicardium