(Referred to as mental retardation) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life, varies from mild to profound. People can, with support, live in mainstream society
Degrees of Intellectual disability- Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound
Mild (50-70 score)- may learn academic skills up to sixth-grade level. Adults may, with assistance, achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills Moderate (35-50 score)- may progress to second-grade level academically. Adults may contribute to their own support by laboring in sheltered workshops Severe (20-35 score)- may learn to talk and perform simple work tasks under close supervision, but are generally unable to profit from vocational training. Profound (Below 20 score)- require constant aid and supervision
Condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of Chromosome 21
Gifted Children and Self-fulfilling Prophecies
Gifted Children-they are very intellectually smart with IQ scores over 135. They are healthy, well-adjusted and usually successful academically. Usually went on to attain higher-levels of education, like doctor, lawyer, professors, writers, etc. Self-fulfilling prophecies- saying those people labeled "ungifted" may be influenced to become ungifted when really they could actually be really smart.
Believed we all have general intelligence (specific mental abilities). Helped develop factor analysis (statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items)
Condition which a person otherwise limited in a mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, like computation or drawing. Usually excel in one special skill/talent. These people usually have autism.
Gardner's Multiple Intelligence
Created by Howard Gardner. They are multiple abilities that come in packages. There are eight- Linguistic (T.S. Eliot, poet), Logical-mathematical (Albert Einstein, scientist), Musical (Igor Stravinsky, composer), Spatial (Pablo Picasso, artist), Bodily-Kinesthetic (Martha Graham, dancer), Intrapersonal (self) (Sigmund Freud, psychiatrist), Interpersonal (other people) (Mahatma Gandhi, leader), and Naturalist (Charles Darwin, naturalist)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Created by David Wechsler. Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests. Yields intelligence scores and separates scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed. This test also has one for children.
A psychologist who specializes in the construction and use of tests designed to measure various psychological constructs such as intelligence and various personality characteristics.
The overall capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
A property expressed by a test that yields the same result over time.
A method for determining the reliability of a test by comparing a test takers scores on the same test taken on separate occasions.
A test is divided into two halves and the scores on the halves are compared to see if the test is consistent within itself Example: comparing odds and evens
A property exhibited by a test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
Measure of the extent to which a test'a results correlate with other accepted measures of what is being tested.
Viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing Example: IQ
Field: differential psychology Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance Studies: Twin Studies-compare identical & fraternal twins, Hereditary Genius-used bell curve for normal distribution, & "Law of Errors"-differences in intellectual ability
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.
advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Standford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.
Stanford-Binet intelligence test
The widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test. (Revised by Louis Terman at Stanford university)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (non-verbal) sub tests.