Unit 11- Testing and Individual Differences (5-7%) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 11- Testing and Individual Differences (5-7%) Deck (34):
1

Intellectual Disability

(Referred to as mental retardation) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life, varies from mild to profound. People can, with support, live in mainstream society

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Degrees of Intellectual disability- Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound

Mild (50-70 score)- may learn academic skills up to sixth-grade level. Adults may, with assistance, achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills Moderate (35-50 score)- may progress to second-grade level academically. Adults may contribute to their own support by laboring in sheltered workshops Severe (20-35 score)- may learn to talk and perform simple work tasks under close supervision, but are generally unable to profit from vocational training. Profound (Below 20 score)- require constant aid and supervision

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Down Syndrome

Condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of Chromosome 21

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Gifted Children and Self-fulfilling Prophecies

Gifted Children-they are very intellectually smart with IQ scores over 135. They are healthy, well-adjusted and usually successful academically. Usually went on to attain higher-levels of education, like doctor, lawyer, professors, writers, etc. Self-fulfilling prophecies- saying those people labeled "ungifted" may be influenced to become ungifted when really they could actually be really smart.

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Charles Spearman

Believed we all have general intelligence (specific mental abilities). Helped develop factor analysis (statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items)

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Savants (syndrome)

Condition which a person otherwise limited in a mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, like computation or drawing. Usually excel in one special skill/talent. These people usually have autism.

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Gardner's Multiple Intelligence

Created by Howard Gardner. They are multiple abilities that come in packages. There are eight- Linguistic (T.S. Eliot, poet), Logical-mathematical (Albert Einstein, scientist), Musical (Igor Stravinsky, composer), Spatial (Pablo Picasso, artist), Bodily-Kinesthetic (Martha Graham, dancer), Intrapersonal (self) (Sigmund Freud, psychiatrist), Interpersonal (other people) (Mahatma Gandhi, leader), and Naturalist (Charles Darwin, naturalist)

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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

Created by David Wechsler. Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests. Yields intelligence scores and separates scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed. This test also has one for children.

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Psychometricians

A psychologist who specializes in the construction and use of tests designed to measure various psychological constructs such as intelligence and various personality characteristics.

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Intelligence

The overall capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.

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Standardization

Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

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Reliability

A property expressed by a test that yields the same result over time.

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Test-Retest Reliability

A method for determining the reliability of a test by comparing a test takers scores on the same test taken on separate occasions.

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Split-half reliability

A test is divided into two halves and the scores on the halves are compared to see if the test is consistent within itself Example: comparing odds and evens

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Validity

A property exhibited by a test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

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Content Validity

The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

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Criterion-Related Validity

Measure of the extent to which a test'a results correlate with other accepted measures of what is being tested.

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Reification

Viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing Example: IQ

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Francis Galton

Field: differential psychology Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance Studies: Twin Studies-compare identical & fraternal twins, Hereditary Genius-used bell curve for normal distribution, & "Law of Errors"-differences in intellectual ability

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Mental age

A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.

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Lewis Terman

advocate of intelligence testing in US; developed Standford-Binet test and oversaw army's use of intelligence testing during WWI

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Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.

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Stanford-Binet intelligence test

The widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test. (Revised by Louis Terman at Stanford university)

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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (non-verbal) sub tests.

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Emotional Intelligence

The ability to perceive (to recognize them in faces, music, and stories), understand (to predict them and how they change and blend), manage (to know how to express them in varied situations), and use (to enable adaptive/creative thinking).

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Robert Sternberg

Created the triarchic theory, there are three intelligences. They are analytical (academic problem-solving), creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.

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Creativity

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. Like thinking up a caption for an untitled cartoon.

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Racial IQ Differences

Racial groups differ in their average intelligence test scores. The bell curve for whites is roughly IQ of 100, Bell curve for American blacks is roughly around 85. Recent years white-black differences have diminished somewhat, gap may have stopped narrowing among those born after 1970

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Normal Curve

The symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.

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Achievement Tests

Tests designed to assess what a person has learned. Like school tests, drivers test, and course exams, etc.

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Aptitude Tests

Tests designed to predict a person's future performances; aptitude is the capacity to learn. Like a college entrance exam, which looks to predict your ability to do work in college

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Stereotype threat

Self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. An example would be a black person would do worse on an intelligence test when taking it with all white people, than if they were to do it with other black people

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Fluid Intelligence

Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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Crystallized Intelligence

Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age