Unit 12: Renaissance and Reformation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 12: Renaissance and Reformation Deck (65):


-started in Northern Italy (1300-1600)
-revival of art and learning
-rebirth of classical culture (ancient greek/roman)
-innovative styles of art and literature
-new values (importance of the individual)



-worldly (be a good person to get into heaven)
-not spiritual
-wealthy= enjoyed material luxuries, good music, and fine foods
-spent money on art, education/literature (books and libraries), fashion, architecture (mansions and churches) and fancy banquets
-Middle Ages= demonstrated piety by wearing rough clothes and eating plain foods



-an intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements
-philosophy of life
-humans can be excellent
- humans have potential for great achievements
-model= ancient Greeks and Roman (nudity/ no shame, freestanding); understand Greek values not to make classical texts agree with Christian teachings
-influenced architects and artists to carry on classical traditions
-humanists popularized the study of subjects common to classical education-history, literature, philosophy (humanities)
-Middle Ages= everyone is a sinner, PRAY



-wealthy people/Church leaders who financially supported the arts


Renaissance men

-good at everything
-"universal man"
-know classics
-be charming
-dance, sing, play music, write poetry, skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman


Renaissance women

-know classics
-be charming
-do not seek fame
-inspire art, not create it
-better educated than medieval women
-little influence in politics



-shows 3 dimensions on a flat surface



-native language
-not Latin


Italy's City-States

-lots of trade= new ideas, intellectual revolution, growth of cities; traded with Byzantines (Constantinople), and Muslims (preserved Greek and Roman literature)
-wealthy merhants= motivation to prove excellence (started out poor); became partons (support the arts, writers, and architects)
-they had thier and others portraits painted, which were shown in public to show excellence; some were given to the pope (School of Athens)
-had access to Greek and Roman sources/ideas



-dominated politics
-had to prove (started out poor, then became wealthy)


the Medici

-powerful banking family
-Cosimo de Medici= wealthiest European of his time; 1434: won control of Florence's gov ; 30 yrs dictator of Florence; died in 1464
-Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)= Cosimo's grandson; Lorenzo the magnificent; ruled as dictator


Greek and Roman inpiration

-Renaissance scholars looked down on art and literature of the Middle Ages and wanted to return to the learning of the Greeks and Romans
-ruins of Rome inspired scholars of Italy
-Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts that were preserved in monasteries
-Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453


Michelangelo Buonarroti

-sculptor, painter, poet, architect
-used a realistic style when depicting the human body (what he was famous for)
-Sistine Chapel
-dome of St. Peter's
-starue of David



-made sculpture more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions that reveal personality
-statue= David---> first European sculpture of a free-standing nude sconce ancient times


Leonardo da Vinci

-Renaissance man
-painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist
-Mona Lisa, The Last Supper (shows personality of Jesus's disciples through facial expressions)


Raphael Sanzio

-learned from studying da Vinci's and Michelangelo's work
-famous for use of perspective
-Madonna and child
-School of Athens
-painted famous Renaissance figures (Leonardo, Michelangelo, himself) as classical philosophers and their students


Sofonisba Anguissola

-first woman artist to gain an international reputation
-known for her portraits of her sisters and of prominent ppl (King Phillip II of Spain)


Artemisia Gentileschi

-accomplished artist
-trained with her painter father and helped with his work
-painted pictures of strong heroic women


Francesco Petrarch

-one of the earliest, most influential humanists
-poet (sonnets- 14 line poems), wrote about a mysterious women named Laura, who was his ideal, and about important friends
-love poems
- some call him the father of Renaissance humanism
-wrote in Italian and Latin


Giovanni Boccaccio

-wrote the Decameron (series of realistic, sometimes off-color stories) pg 476
-it presents both tragic and comic views of life
-wrote the history of the plague
-said that no one knew what caused it (Middle Ages= blamed Jews, God, themselves....etc)


Niccolo Machiavelli

-wrote the Prince
-examined the imperfect conduct of human beings
-said if you were a prince and had to chose to he feared or loved, choose to be feared---> Unchristian
-like Caligula= "oderint dum metuant" (let them hate, so lang as they fear
-trick enemies and ppl
-"people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt" (ppl are slime)
-do what was politicaly effective, not what was morally right


Vittoria Colonna

-married Marquis of Pescara
-writer, poet
-exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo
-helped Castiglione publish The Courtier



-means "no place" in Greek
-the perfect place (no use for money, no war....)


William Shakespeare

-born 1592, in Stratford-upon-Avon
-wrote Romeo & Juliet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Hamlet, A Midsummer's Night Dream, The Taming of the Shrew, and many more
-wrote tragedies and comedies
-performed at the Golbe Theater
-drew inspiration from classics


Johann Guternberg

-craftsman from Mainz, Germany
-developed printing press


printing press

-with moveable type
-made it possible for books to be produced quickly and cheaply
-books were more available
-when it previously took 5 months to write 1 book by hand, 500 books could be made in the same amout of time and would be cost less
-more ppl could have books, be able to read (common ppl
-Gutenberg Bible
-medical, law, and travel books
-common literature (plays.....)



-wrote the Divine Comedy
-Virgil= guide (in the story)


Northern Renaissance

-Netherlands (Belgium/Holland)= beolw sea level; high population; lots of cities; merchants; trade led to new ideas
-a lot like N. Italy
-next stop for Renaissance (1400s)
-Germany= trade; cities; imdependent princes
-England= trade; cities; kings


Albrecht Durer

-German painter
-self portrait= renaissance ideas; CELEBRATE YOU! (individual excellence)----> Greek and Romans
-bunny painting= realistic
-3 wise men pic= perspective; realistic; ruins represent ancient Rome (classical)


German Painters vs Flemish Painters

-Flemish painters= less realistic that german
-Jan van Eyck: Adam & Eve; Arnolffini Wedding\
-Pieter Bruegel: not very realistic (sort of cartoonish), ver detailed---> Landscape with the fall of Icarus
-German painters= very realistic\
-Albrecht Durer
-Hans Holbein: painted portrait of Henry VIII; realistic; photographic level of detail
-both= lots of detail, classical myth in in the background (not that noticeable, some sort of classical element)


(Deiderious) Erasmus of Holland

-wrote The Praise of Folly
-made fun of greedy merchants, obsessed lovers, pompous scholars........DONT BE LIKE THEM; be more like Jesus


Thomas More of England

-wrote Utopia
-the perfect place (no money, no war, women work)


Christine de Pizan

-one of the first European writers to question differnet treatment of boys and girls
-wrote The Book of the City of Ladies
-wrote short stories, biographies, novels, manuals on military techniques....etc


Changes in the Arts

-more realistic art
-writer use vernacular to express ideas
-art prased individual achievment
-art drew on techniques and style of classical Greece and Rome


Changes in Society

-printing made more info available and inexpensive enough for a society at large
-greater availablility of books prompted an increased desire for learing and a rise in literacy throughout Europe
-published accounts of new dicoveries, maps, and charts led to further dicoveries in a variety of fields
-published legal proceedings made the laws clear so that people were more likely to understand thier rights
-Christian humanists' attempts to reform society changed views about how life should be lived
-ppl began to question political structures and religious practices


Causes of the Reformation

-Political= Powerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe and many leaders challenged the pope’s authority.
-Economic= European princes and kings were jealous of the Church’s wealth and merchants and others resented to pay taxes to the Church.
-Social= The Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led people to question the Church. Also, the printing press helped to spread ideas critical to the Church.
-Religious= some Church leaders had become worldly and corrupt (spent lots of maney on stuff); many people found Church practices such as the sale of indulgences unacceptable
-Christian Humanists= questioned the value of the Church (why was it wealthy)
-Thomas More's Utopia says that the perfect world is one without wealth/luxury, pompous preists......
-German states= lots of options for differnet sets of religious beliefs; pope= foreign ruler; didn't like indulgences
-perfect place for new religious movement


Martin Luther

-monk (parents wanted him to become a lawyer)
-taught scripture at the University of Wittenberg int the German state of Saxony
-1517= wrote the 95 Theses in response to Tetzel's selling of indulgences
-October 31= posted them on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg and invited scholars to debate him (someone copied his words and printed them, Luther became known all over Germany)
-ignored by pope
1. ppl could win salvation only by faith in God's gift of forgiveness; The Church thought that faith and "good works" were needed for salvation
2. All Church teachings should clearly be based on the words of the Bible; Both the pope and Church traditions were false authorities
3. All ppl with faith were equal (ppl didn't need priests to interpret the Bible for them)
-1520= excommunicated by Pope Leo X
-1521= declared a heretic and an outlaw in Worms by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (all his books were burned; no one was to give him food or shelter but Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony sheltered him for a year and Luther translated the New Testament into German)
-believed that ppl cannot earn salvation


Johann Tetzel

-sold indulgences
-gave ppl the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way, and others, to heaven



-pardon releasing a person's punishment due to a sin
-they were not supposed to affect God's right to judge
-unfair to poor (cant pay, no money)
-not sincere (not the way to be/do better)



-a movement for religious reform
-led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope's authority



-followers of Luther
-separate religious group


The Peasant' Revolt

-German peasants demanded to end serfdom
-they revolted
-this horrified Luther-Luther wrote a pamphlet urging the German princes to show no mercy
-10,000 ppl killed
-peasants felt betrayed; they rejected Luther's religious leadership



-protesting princes who supported Luther
-signed a protest against the agreement where the pope and the German princes (who did not side with Luther) joined forces against Luther’s ideas
-founded on the principles of the Reformation
-didn't follow the pope
-1517= split w/ Church
-1529= religious war in Europe
-1555= Peace of Augsburg
-Calvinists (reformed Protestants)
- Presbyterians
-Anglicans (Episcopalians)


Peace of Augsburg

-agreement between the German princes (Protestant and Catholic) where each ruler would decide the religion of his state
-Charles V fought against Protestant princes


Henry VIII

-1509= king of England
-devout Catholic (against Luther's ideas)
-given the title of "Defender of the Faith"
-wife= Catherine of Argon; had 1 daughter (Mary) but Henry wanted a son (male heir)
-he asked the pope to annul his marriage w/ Catherine but the pope refused (didn't want to offend Catherine's nephew, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V)
-1529= called Parliament to pass a set of laws that ended the pope's power in Europe (Reformation Parliament)
-he secretly married Anne Boleyn; divorce w/ Catherine was legalized by Prlmt.
-his break with the pope was complete when Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy (called on ppl to take an oath recognizing the divorce and accepting Henry, not the pope, as official head of the Anglican Church)
-Anne had a daughter (Elizabeth) and Anne was imprisoned, found guilty, and beheaded)
-3rd wife= Jane Seymour; had a son (Edward VI); she died 2 weeks later
-he married 3 more times
-died 1547
-each of 3 children ruled in turn= religious turmoil
-Edward ruled at 9 yrs. old; had adult advisors who were Protestant and introduced Protestant reforms into the English Church
-Mary (Bloody Mary) then took the throne in 1533; Catholic (killed many Protestants); died 1558
-Elizabeth took the throne


Reformation Parliament

-Parliament that passed a set of laws that ended the pope's power in Europe


Act of Supremacy

-called on ppl to take an oath recognizing the divorce and accepting Henry, not the pope, as official head of the Anglican Church
-Thomas More= devout Catholic; didn't accept the terms and didn't take the oath
-he was imprisoned in the Tower of London and executed (treason) in 1535


Elizabeth I

-made her kingdom Protestant
-decided to establish a state church that moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants might both accept
-Protestant= priests (in Anglican Church)were allowed to marry and could deliver sermons in English, not Latin
-Catholic= Anglican Church kept some of the trappings of the Catholic service(rich robes); church services were revised to be somewhat more acceptable to Catholics
-Protestants pushed for more reforms
-Catholics tried to overthrow her and replace her with Catholic Mary Queen of the Scots
-faced threats from Phillip II (Catholic king of Spain)
-money was a problem (not enough)
-pg 494


Anglican Church

-Church of England


Huldrych Zwingli

-Catholic priest in Zurich
-influenced by Erasmus and Luther
-wanted believers to have control over the Church
-1520- openly attacked abuses in the Catholic Church
-1531-dead in a war


John Calvin

-more influence on Protestantism than Luther
-1517= published Institutes of the Christian Religion
-believed in predestination
-believed the ideal gov was a theocracy
-followers in France= Huguenots
-August 24, 1547= Catholic + Huguenots clash
-12,000 Huguenots killed



-doctrine/belief that states that God chooses a very few ppl to save (salvation)
-these ppl were called the elect



-religion based on Calvin's teachings



-government controlled by religious leaders


John Knox

-Scottish preacher
-admired Calvin
-visited Calvin's Geneva
-prebyters= elders



-followers of Knox
-made Calvinism Scotland's official religion
-overthrew their Catholic ruler, Mary Queen of the Scots, in favor of her infant son, James



-froom Greek word meaning "baptize again"
-believed ppl who had been baptized as childred should be baptized again as adults
--taught that Church and state should be separate
-refused to fight in wars
-persecuted by Catholics
-forerunners of Amish, Quakers, Mennonites, Baptists (split from Catholic Church)


Women's Role in the Reformation

-some protected reformers (Marguerite of Navarre, sister of King Francis I, proteced John Calvin from being executed)
-wives helped
-Katherina von Bora (Luther's wife)= 6 children; she managed the finances, fed those who visited her home; supported Luther
-she argued with Luther about women's equal role in marriage
-women's activites were limited to the home and discouraged from being leaders in the Church


Catholic Reformation

-reforms in the Catholic Church
-aka: the Counter Reformation
-new religious orders founded by popes Paul III and Paul IV


Ignatius of Loyola

-grew up in Spain in father's castle
-1521= hurt in was
-while recovering, he thought about his sins and Jesus
-wrote book= Spiritual Exercises (day-by-day plan of meditation, prayer, and study; spiritual vs physical exercise



-followers of the Society of Jesus
-well trained in classical studies and theology
1. found schools throughout Europe
2. convert non-CHristians to Catholicism (missionaries)
3. to stop the spread of Protestantism


Pope Paul III

-pope from 1534-1549
1. directed a council of cardinals to investigate the selling of indulgences and other abuses in the Church
2. approved the Jesuit order
3. used the Inquisition to seek out heresy in papal territory
4. called a council of Church leaders to meet in Trent (northern Italy)---> Council of Trent


the Council of Trent

-called by Pope Paul III
-Church leaders agreed on several doctrines.......
1. the Church's interpretation of the Bible was final (any other interpretation was considered heresy)
2. Christian needed faith and good works to get into Heaven (not by faith alone (Luther))
3. the Bible and Churhc tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding Chirstian life
4. indulgences were valid expressions of faitth but false selling of indulgences was banned


Pope Paul IV

-carried out the Council's decrees
-1559= had officials make a list of books dangerous to the Catholic faith (the Index of Forbidden Books) including the Protestant Bible


Effects of the Reformation

- As a result of the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church became more unified.
-It ended the Christian unity of Europe and left it culturally divided.
-Protestant churches grew
-More emphasis on education in promoting beliefs (Protestants and Catholics).
-Monarchs gained power as Catholic moral and political authority declined
-status of women didn't change