Flashcards in Unit 14 Deck (46):
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing other's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Peripheral route persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's she attractiveness.
Central route persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive dissonance theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Normative social influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational social influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
Improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
"Us"-people with whom we share a common identity.
"Them"-those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
The tendency to favor our own group.
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for providing someone to blame.
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect or the own-race bias.
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
The principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.
Mere exposure effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Social exchange theory
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
An expectation that people will help those needing their help.
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.